Article

Effects of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol on early-life development, sex differentiation and vitellogenin induction in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

Department of Biology and Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada.
Marine environmental research (Impact Factor: 2.34). 10/2009; 69(3):178-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.10.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fertilized mummichog eggs retrieved from 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) exposed adult fish were raised in concentrations of EE(2) ranging from 0 to 100 ng/L (100 ng/L EE(2) estimated to have actual average exposure concentrations of 30% of nominal; 0.1-10 ng/L were below detect throughout 24-h exposure period) for 61 weeks post-hatch. Eggs exposed at 100 ng/L hatched sooner, the larvae were longer, and survival of juvenile fish from hatch to study termination was greater than all other treatments, though fewer hatched at this treatment. Sex ratios were skewed (>80% female phenotype) at 100 ng/L EE(2), and some gonadal male fish displayed female secondary sex characteristics. Condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and liver somatic index (LSI) were found to decrease in both sexes between 52 and 61 weeks post-hatch. Female fish had increased hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) at 52 weeks post-hatch. When exposed to 1, 10 and 100 ng/L EE(2), female fish had a higher proportion of vitellogenic follicles in the ovarian tissue. Males exposed at 100 ng/L may have had disruption at some endpoints (GSI, VTG) that is masked due to reduced sample size compared to other treatments. Fish exposed to concentrations of EE(2) at or below 10 ng/L showed inconsistent effects on development and reproductive potential. This study indicates the potential for population-level effects at the high range of environmental EE(2) at concentrations equivalent to those at which consistent effects in fecundity in the adult mummichog reproductive test have been measured. This work demonstrates that chronic EE(2) exposure causes developmental effects at concentrations similar to those which cause effects in the shorter-term adult mummichog reproductive test. Effects are at higher concentrations than have been noted for freshwater model species. Whether this is because of species sensitivity or due to differences between freshwater and saltwater availability of EE(2) or its uptake requires further study.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
152 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pyrethroids are highly toxic to fish at parts per billion or parts per trillion concentrations. Their intended mechanism is prolonged sodium channel opening, but recent studies reveal that pyrethroids such as permethrin and bifenthrin also have endocrine activity. Additionally, metabolites may have greater endocrine activity than parent compounds. The authors evaluated the in vivo concentration-dependent ability of bifenthrin and permethrin to induce choriogenin (an estrogen-responsive protein) in Menidia beryllina, a fish species known to reside in pyrethroid-contaminated aquatic habitats. The authors then compared the in vivo response with an in vitro assay-chemical activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX). Juvenile M. beryllina exposed to bifenthrin (1, 10, 100 ng/L), permethrin (0.1, 1, 10 µg/L), and ethinylestradiol (1, 10, 50 ng/L) had significantly higher ng/mL choriogenin (Chg) measured in whole body homogenate than controls. Though Chg expression in fish exposed to ethinylestradiol (EE2) exhibited a traditional sigmoidal concentration response, curves fit to Chg expressed in fish exposed to pyrethroids suggest a unimodal response, decreasing slightly as concentration increases. Whereas the in vivo response indicated that bifenthrin and permethrin or their metabolites act as estrogen agonists, the CALUX assay demonstrated estrogen antagonism by the pyrethroids. The results, supported by evidence from previous studies, suggest that bifenthrin and permethrin, or their metabolites, appear to act as estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in vivo, and that the unmetabolized pyrethroids, particularly bifenthrin, act as an ER antagonists in cultured mammalian cells. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 09/2012; · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    01/2013; , ISBN: 9780444593955
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone, estradiol (E2). EE2 is an orally bio-active estrogen, and is one of the most commonly used medications for humans as well as livestock and aquaculture activity. EE2 has become a widespread problem in the environment due to its high resistance to the process of degradation and its tendency to (i) absorb organic matter, (ii) accumulate in sediment and (iii) concentrate in biota. Numerous studies have reported the ability of EE2 to alter sex determination, delay sexual maturity, and decrease the secondary sexual characteristics of exposed organisms even at a low concentration (ng/L) by mimicking its natural analogue, 17β-estradiol (E2). Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species. The challenges in respect of EE2 include the extension of the limited database on the EE2 pollution profile in the environment, its fate and transport mechanism, as well as the exposure level of EE2 for better prediction and definition revision of EE2 toxicity end points, notably for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.
    Environment international 05/2014; 69C:104-119. · 6.25 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
10 Downloads
Available from
May 15, 2014