Cancer gene therapy by IL-12 gene delivery using liposomal bubbles and tumoral ultrasound exposure.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene therapy is expected to be effective against cancers because it primes the immune system for cancer cells. In this therapy, it is important to induce IL-12 gene expression in the tumor tissue. Sonoporation is an attractive technique for developing non-invasive and non-viral gene delivery systems, but simple sonoporation using only ultrasound is not an effective cancer gene therapy because of the low efficiency of gene delivery. We addressed this problem by combining ultrasound and novel ultrasound-sensitive liposomes (Bubble liposomes) which contain the ultrasound imaging gas perfluoropropane. Our previous work showed that this is an effective gene delivery system, and that Bubble liposome collapse (cavitation) is induced by ultrasound exposure. In this study, we assessed the utility of this system in cancer gene therapy using IL-12 corded plasmid DNA. The combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound dramatically suppressed tumor growth. This therapeutic effect was T-cell dependent, requiring mainly CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the effector phase, as confirmed by a mouse in vivo depletion assay. In addition, migration of CD8(+) T cells was observed in the mice, indicating that the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound is a good non-viral vector system in IL-12 cancer gene therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor (CLMF) is a disulfide-bonded heterodimeric lymphokine that (i) acts as a growth factor for activated T cells independent of interleukin 2 and (ii) synergizes with suboptimal concentrations of interleukin 2 to induce lymphokine-activated killer cells. We now report the cloning and expression of both human CLMF subunit cDNAs from a lymphoblastoid B-cell line, NC-37. The two subunits represent two distinct and unrelated gene products whose mRNAs are coordinately induced upon activation of NC-37 cells. Coexpression of the two subunit cDNAs in COS cells is necessary for the secretion of biologically active CLMF; COS cells transfected with either subunit cDNA alone do not secrete bioactive CLMF. Recombinant CLMF expressed in mammalian cells displays biologic activities essentially identical to natural CLMF, and its activities can be neutralized by monoclonal antibodies prepared against natural CLMF. Since this heterodimeric protein displays the properties of an interleukin, we propose that CLMF be given the designation interleukin 12.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1991; 88(10):4143-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A Phase I dose escalation trial of i.v. administered recombinant human interleukin 12 (rhIL-12) was performed to determine its toxicity, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and biological and potential antineoplastic effects. Cohorts of four to six patients with advanced cancer, Karnofsky performance >/=70%, and normal organ function received escalating doses (3-1000 ng/kg/day) of rhIL-12 (Genetics Institute, Inc.) by bolus i.v. injection once as an inpatient and then, after a 2-week rest period, once daily for five days every 3 weeks as an outpatient. Therapy was withheld for grade 3 toxicity (grade 4 hyperbilirubinemia or neutropenia), and dose escalation was halted if three of six patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). After establishment of the MTD, eight more patients were enrolled to further assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunobiology of this dose. Forty patients were enrolled, including 20 with renal cancer, 12 with melanoma, and 5 with colon cancer; 25 patients had received prior systemic therapy. Common toxicities included fever/chills, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Fever was first observed at the 3 ng/kg dose level, typically occurred 8-12 h after rhIL-12 administration, and was incompletely suppressed with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Routine laboratory changes included anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, thrombocytopenia, and hypoalbuminemia. DLTs included oral stomatitis and liver function test abnormalities, predominantly elevated transaminases, which occurred in three of four patients at the 1000 ng/kg dose level. The 500 ng/kg dose level was determined to be the MTD. This dose, administered by this schedule, was associated with asymptomatic hepatic function test abnormalities in three patients and an onstudy death due to Clostridia perfringens septicemia but was otherwise well tolerated by the 14 patients treated in the dose escalation and safety phases. The T1/2 elimination of rhIL-12 was calculated to be 5.3-9.6 h. Biological effects included dose-dependent increases in circulating IFN-gamma, which exhibited attenuation with subsequent cycles. Serum neopterin rose in a reproducible fashion regardless of dose or cycle. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected by ELISA. One of 40 patients developed a low titer antibody to rhIL-12. Lymphopenia was observed at all dose levels, with recovery occurring within several days of completing treatment without rebound lymphocytosis. There was one partial response (renal cell cancer) and one transient complete response (melanoma), both in previously untreated patients. Four additional patients received all proposed treatment without disease progression. rhIL-12 administered according to this schedule is biologically and clinically active at doses tolerable by most patients in an outpatient setting. Nonetheless, additional Phase I studies examining different schedules and the mechanisms of the specific DLTs are indicated before proceeding to Phase II testing.Clinical Cancer Research 04/1997; 3(3):409-17. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scrape loading and sonication loading are two recently described methods of introducing macromolecules into living cells. We have tested the efficacy of these methods for transfection of mammalian cells with exogenous DNA, using selection systems based either on resistance to the drug G418 (Geneticin) or on acquisition of the ability to utilize the salvage pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis. These loading methods can be employed to generate cell lines that express the gene product of the transfected DNA molecules both transiently and stably. Optimal transfection is observed when the DNA is added to cells in physiological saline lacking divalent cations and containing K+ in place of Na+. DNA molecules 7.1 to 30 kilobases long have been introduced by the scrape loading procedure. In addition, the scrape loading procedure has been employed for cotransfection and subsequent expression of nonselectable genes encoded on DNA molecules added in a mixture with DNA molecules whose expression is selected. Cell lines expressing oncogenes or proteins that are important for regulation of cell growth and division have been obtained by this procedure. The scrape loading procedure is also useful for studies of the cellular changes that occur upon expression of an exogenous gene. As many as 80% of cells scrape loaded with the plasmid pC6, which encodes the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, contained this protein in the nucleus between 1 and 5 days after transfection. Thus, scrape loading and sonication loading are simple, economical, and reproducible methods for introduction of DNA molecules into adherent and nonadherent cells, and these methods may be useful in the future for experimentation at both fundamental and applied levels.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1988; 84(23):8463-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor