Impact of Pregnancy on Prevalence of Goitre and Nodular Thyroid Disease in Women Living in a Region of Borderline Sufficient Iodine Supply
ABSTRACT An interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributes to thyroid disease. In a cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the influence of parity in combination with other risk factors on the prevalence of goitre and nodular thyroid disease (NTD) in women living in a region of previous overt iodine deficiency, which experienced a continuous improvement in alimentary iodine supply in the last two decades. Thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz; Merck Thyromobil) was performed by the same investigator in 736 women living in Thuringia and Saxony. Age and BMI were documented and a comprehensive history on pregnancies, family history of thyroid disease, and past or present smoking was obtained. Goitre prevalence was 19.1%. Solitary thyroid nodules were detected in 21.5%, and multiple nodules in 23.8% of women. In a multivariate analysis, neither age nor parity was positively correlated with goitre prevalence and NTD. A significant correlation was detected between BMI and goitre and multinodular disease. Goitre was found in 25.3% of women with a positive family history for thyroid disease, as opposed to 16.1% goitre in women with a negative family history. Neither goitre nor NTD were associated with a history of smoking in the whole study population. Thyroid nodules and/or goitre are present in up to 45% of women in an area of previous overt iodine deficiency. Whereas BMI and family history are positively correlated with the presence of NTD and goitre, no such correlation could be detected for pregnancy and smoking after processing our data with multivariate analyses.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have indicated that ionizing radiation, particularly during childhood, is the main established risk factor for thyroid cancer. History of benign nodules/adenoma, goiter, iodine deficiency or high-iodine intake might be other associated factors. We wanted to define the histology-specific thyroid cancer risk in the first-generation immigrants to Sweden. We used the 2010 update of the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database (>12 million individuals; 1.8 million immigrants; histology code in force since 1958) to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for histology-specific thyroid cancer among immigrants compared to the native Swedes. The patient series covered 2,604 male and 6,406 female Swedes, and 247 and 863 immigrants. The median age at immigration was 29 years, and the median age at thyroid cancer diagnosis was 46 years. Increased risks for female papillary carcinoma were observed for Finns (SIR = 1.63), former Yugoslavians (2.36), Russians (2.34), other East Europeans (2.14), Turks (3.16), Iranians (2.68), Iraqis (2.77), East and Southeast Asians (2.92), other Asians (1.69) and South Americans (2.23). Male Iranians (2.85), East and Southeast Asians (3.57) and other Asians (2.26) had an increased risk for papillary carcinoma. Only male East and Southeast Asians (2.93) had an increased risk for follicular carcinoma. The data might suggest that immigrant populations in Sweden from areas of low or high-iodine intake are at risk of papillary carcinoma, implicating iodine imbalance as a contributing factor to our findings. The increased risk of thyroid cancer among Asian immigrants may confirm the role of childhood-ionizing radiation on thyroid cancer risk.International Journal of Cancer 11/2011; 129(9):2248-55. DOI:10.1002/ijc.25867 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deiodinase enzyme II (DIO2) has an important role in individuals' thyroid hormones' level, the development of central and peripheral nervous systems and characterized by mental retardation (MR). The DIO2 gene was genotyped by using five haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 157 Chinese MR high-density family pedigrees, including 452 nuclear families and >1460 persons. The single marker and haplotype analyses were performed by Family-based Association Tests (FBAT). Three SNPs had P-values <0.05 in at least one inherited model survived with the correction. Several haplotypes composed of these SNPs were also associated with MR. The in silico analyses identified that one of the SNPs, rs1388378, may be a functional SNP. However, further in vitro studies of this SNP should be considered in elucidating its effect on gene expression and the possible role in MR susceptibility.Journal of Human Genetics 11/2011; 57(1):14-7. DOI:10.1038/jhg.2011.121 · 2.53 Impact Factor
Article: Thyroid disorders during pregnancy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thyroid physiology is altered during pregnancy as a result of an increase in thyroid-binding globulin, the stimulatory effect of hCG on TSH receptors, and increased peripheral thyroid hormone requirements. In addition, hyper and hypothyroid disorders are prevalent among women of reproductive age, and most of them have a significant impact on the gravida, fetus and neonate. Aberrant thyroid function can be readily recognized and treated during pregnancy, avoiding such complications. Here, we will review the thyroid function changes occurring during pregnancy, the different disorders, their maternal and fetal implications, and the ways to screen, prevent and treat these conditions.Gynecological Endocrinology 06/2012; DOI:10.3109/09513590.2012.692001 · 1.14 Impact Factor