Postoperative pain survey in Italy (POPSI): a snapshot of current national practices
ABSTRACT Over the last several years, significant efforts have been directed towards improving the quality of postoperative pain management. As data are lacking on the organization and quality of these services in Italy, we surveyed current Italian practices.
A 16-item questionnaire was randomly supplied to 650 anesthesiologists attending the Italian Society of Anesthesia Analgesia Resuscitation and Intensive Care Medicine (SIAARTI) National Congress in 2006. The survey requested information concerning their current practices in analgesic techniques, use of guidelines, educational programs, availability of an Acute Pain Service (APS), and existing barriers to optimal postoperative pain management.
Based on 588 respondents, a sample of 163 hospitals was analyzed (24.4% of Italian public hospitals); 41.7% of the surveyed hospitals had an organized APS. University and teaching hospitals had an organized APS more frequently than did other hospitals (P<0.02). Continuous intravenous analgesia using elastomeric infusion systems was the most commonly used analgesic technique, performed in 44% of the treated patients. The frequency of both intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and epidural techniques was extremely low (5% and 13%, respectively). The main reasons given for suboptimal pain relief were inadequate training of surgeons and nurses (44.3%), poor organization (29.9%), and lack of equipment (21.5%). A total of 51.2% of the respondents would like to have a dedicated anesthesiologist assigned on a daily rotational basis to postoperative pain management.
A comparison to international survey data showed that postoperative pain management in Italy is still below the European standards. Additional efforts to overcome these hurdles and to reach an acceptable level of quality are required.
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ABSTRACT: No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment.Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain: 1998) 06/2010; 46(6):379-98. DOI:10.1358/dot.2010.46.6.1470106 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of these recommendations is the revision of data published in 2002 in the "SIAARTI Recommendations for acute postoperative pain treatment". In this version, the SIAARTI Study Group for acute and chronic pain decided to grade evidence based on the "modified Delphi" method with 5 levels of recommendation strength. Analgesia is a fundamental right of the patient. The appropriate management of postoperative pain (POP) is known to significantly reduce perioperative morbidity, including the incidence of postoperative complications, hospital stay and costs, especially in high-risk patients (ASA III-V), those undergoing major surgery and those hospitalized in a critical unit (Level A). Therefore, the treatment of POP represents a high-priority institutional objective, as well as an integral part of the treatment plan for "perioperative disease", which includes analgesia, early mobilization, early enteral nutrition and active physiokinesitherapy (Level A). In order to improve an ACUTE PAIN SERVICE organization, we recommend: --a plan for pain management that includes adequate preoperative evaluation, pain measurement, organization of existing resources, identification and training of involved personnel in order to assure multimodal analgesia, early mobilization, early enteral nutrition and active physiokinesitherapy (Level A); --the implementation of an Acute Pain Service, a multidisciplinary structure which includes an anesthetist (team coordinator), surgeons, nurses, physiotherapists and eventually other specialists; --referring to high-quality indicators in establishing an APS and considering the following key points in its organization (Level C): --service adoption; --identifying a referring anesthetist who is on call 24 hours a day; --patient care during the night and weekend; --sharing, drafting and updating written therapeutic protocols; --continuous medical education; --systematic pain assessment; --data collection regarding the efficacy and safety of the implemented protocols; --at least one audit per year. --a preoperative evaluation, including all the necessary information for the management of postoperative analgesia (Level C); --to adequately inform the patient about the risks and benefits of drugs and procedures used to obtain the maximum efficacy from the administered treatments (Level D). We describe pharmacological and loco-regional techniques with special attention to day surgery and difficult populations. Risk management pathways must be the reference for early identification and treatment of adverse events and chronic pain development.Minerva anestesiologica 08/2010; 76(8):657-67. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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