Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl.
ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC(50) and IC(50) values approximately 20 times lower for the oligochaete than for the gastropod. On the other hand, the recovery process in uncontaminated media was more efficient in oligochaetes than in snails. Thus, in only 2h the oligochaetes showed no inhibition with respect to control values whereas the snails did not reach control values even after 48h of being in pesticide-free water. CES activity was investigated in whole body soft tissue homogenates using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl butyrate, 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) and 2-NA. In addition, the presence of multiple CES isozymes in L. variegatus and B. glabrata extracts, with activity towards 1- and 2-NA, was confirmed by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In both species, the activities measured using the naphthyl substrates were higher than the activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate. In addition, B. glabrata showed a higher CES activity than L. variegatus independently of the substrate used. In L. variegatus, in vivo CES activity towards the different substrates was less sensitive to carbaryl inhibition than ChE activity. In contrast, in B. glabrata, CES activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate was inhibited at lower insecticide concentrations than ChE. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the sensitivity of non-target freshwater invertebrate Type B-esterases towards pesticides.
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ABSTRACT: Sericostoma vittatum is a caddisfly species, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, proposed as a biomonitor species for lotic ecosystems. Since inhibition of cholinesterases׳ (ChE) activity has been used to evaluate the exposure of macroinvertebrates to organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, this work intended to characterize the ChE present in this species so their activity can be used as a potential biomarker of exposure. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of ChE were characterized in this caddisfly species using different substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and butyrylthiocholine iodide) and selective inhibitors (eserine sulfate, BW284c51, and iso-OMPA). Also, the in vitro effects of two insecticides (carbaryl and chlorantraniliprole) and two psychiatric drugs (fluoxetine and carbamazepine) on ChE activity were investigated. The results suggest that S. vittatum possess mainly AChE able to hydrolyze both substrates acetylthiocholine and propionylthiocholine since: (1) it hydrolyzes the substrate acetylthiocholine and propionylcholine at similar rates and butyrylthiocholine at a much lower rate; (2) it is highly sensitive to eserine sulfate and BW284c51, but not to iso-OMPA; and (3) its activity is inhibited by excess of substrate, a characteristic of typical AChE. in vitro inhibitions were observed only for carbaryl exposure while exposure to chlorantraniliprole and to relevant environmental concentrations of psychiatric drugs did not cause any significant effect on AChE activity. This study suggests that AChE activity in caddisflies can indeed be used to discriminate the effects of specific insecticides in monitoring programs. The use of non-target species such as caddisflies in ecotoxicological research in lotic ecosystems is also discussed.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2014; 104C:263-268. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and energy allocation in the freshwater organism Daphnia magna exposed to carbaryl and potential recovery from the effects was examined. The binding of carbaryl-AChE was characterized through in vitro assays. To evaluate the recovery from inhibition and the alteration in energy budget, in vivo exposure and recovery regime tests were conducted. In comparison to diazoxon, the active metabolite of the insecticide diazinon, the stability of enzyme-carbaryl complex was fifteen times lower and the reactivity toward the active site was two times lower, resulting in approximately 30 times lower overall inhibition rate than for diazoxon. The in vitro reactivation rate constant of the inhibited enzyme and the in vivo recovery rate constant of AChE activity were 1.9h(-1) and 0.12h(-1) for carbaryl, respectively, which are much higher than the corresponding rate constants for diazoxon. The lower AChE inhibition and greater reactivation/recovery rates are in accordance with the lower toxicity of carbaryl compared to diazinon. Carbaryl exposure also altered the profile of the energy reserve: the decrease in lipid and glycogen and the increase in protein content resulted in the reduction of the total energy budget by about 45mJ/gww. This corresponds to 26 percent of the available energy, which might allocate for external stressors. The mechanistic model of AChE inhibition is helpful to get an insight into (eco-)toxicological effects of AChE inhibitors on freshwater crustaceans under environmentally realistic conditions.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the Upper Valley of Río Negro and Río Neuquén in Argentina, agriculture represents the second most important economic activity. Azinphos-methyl has been found in water from this region throughout the year at a maximum concentration of 22.48μgL(-1) during the application period. Toxicological studies on local non-target species have been performed mostly on vertebrates, while mollusks, which could be more sensitive, have not been studied so far. This work aims to characterize cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxilesterase (CE) activities of Chilina gibbosa, a freshwater gastropod native to southern Argentina and Chile. These enzymes, together with neurotoxicity signals, are evaluated herein after as sensitive biomarkers of exposure to azinphos-methyl at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of azinphos-methyl on antioxidant defenses: glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are also studied in order to complete a set of biomarkers with different sensitivity and specificity, to propose C. gibbosa as a sentinel species. The highest specific activity was obtained with acetylthiocholine as substrate, followed by propionylthiocholine (83% in comparison to acetylthiocholine) and butyrylthiocholine (19%).The lowest Km and the highest efficiency for ChE were obtained with acetylthiocholine. Regarding CEs activities, a higher efficiency was obtained with p-nitrophenyl butyrate than with p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eserine produced significant inhibition of ChE activity (81% with 0.001mM and 98% with 1mM) while iso-OMPA did not produce any significant effect on ChE. Our results show that C. gibbosa ChE is very sensitive to azinphos-methyl (CI50 0.02μgL(-1)) while CEs are inhibited at higher concentrations (CI50 1000μgL(-1)). CEs have been reported to be more sensitive to OPs than ChEs in most of the aquatic invertebrates protecting the organisms from neurotoxic effects. In contrast, C. gibbosa, has ChE which are much more sensitive to azinphos-methyl than CEs and shows marked signs of neurotoxicity. Regarding antioxidant defenses, GSH levels were significantly increased by 0.02 and 20μgL(-1) azinphos-methyl (80 and 103%, respectively), CAT activity was increased 85% only at 0.02μgL(-1) and SOD and GST did not show any significant response. Since ChE activity, neurotoxicity signs, GSH and CAT are sensitive biomarkers of acute exposure to azinphos-methyl at environmental concentrations C. gibbosa could be included as sentinel species in monitoring programs of pesticide hazard in regions of Argentina and Chile.Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 10/2013; 144-145C:26-35. · 3.12 Impact Factor