Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl.
ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC(50) and IC(50) values approximately 20 times lower for the oligochaete than for the gastropod. On the other hand, the recovery process in uncontaminated media was more efficient in oligochaetes than in snails. Thus, in only 2h the oligochaetes showed no inhibition with respect to control values whereas the snails did not reach control values even after 48h of being in pesticide-free water. CES activity was investigated in whole body soft tissue homogenates using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl butyrate, 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) and 2-NA. In addition, the presence of multiple CES isozymes in L. variegatus and B. glabrata extracts, with activity towards 1- and 2-NA, was confirmed by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In both species, the activities measured using the naphthyl substrates were higher than the activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate. In addition, B. glabrata showed a higher CES activity than L. variegatus independently of the substrate used. In L. variegatus, in vivo CES activity towards the different substrates was less sensitive to carbaryl inhibition than ChE activity. In contrast, in B. glabrata, CES activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate was inhibited at lower insecticide concentrations than ChE. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the sensitivity of non-target freshwater invertebrate Type B-esterases towards pesticides.
SourceAvailable from: Carlos A de B Pereira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76 mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, inﬂuent and efﬂuent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identiﬁed as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studiesEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety 09/2014; 110:208-2015. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.09.005 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sericostoma vittatum is a caddisfly species, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, proposed as a biomonitor species for lotic ecosystems. Since inhibition of cholinesterases׳ (ChE) activity has been used to evaluate the exposure of macroinvertebrates to organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, this work intended to characterize the ChE present in this species so their activity can be used as a potential biomarker of exposure. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of ChE were characterized in this caddisfly species using different substrates (acetylthiocholine iodide, propionylthiocholine iodide, and butyrylthiocholine iodide) and selective inhibitors (eserine sulfate, BW284c51, and iso-OMPA). Also, the in vitro effects of two insecticides (carbaryl and chlorantraniliprole) and two psychiatric drugs (fluoxetine and carbamazepine) on ChE activity were investigated. The results suggest that S. vittatum possess mainly AChE able to hydrolyze both substrates acetylthiocholine and propionylthiocholine since: (1) it hydrolyzes the substrate acetylthiocholine and propionylcholine at similar rates and butyrylthiocholine at a much lower rate; (2) it is highly sensitive to eserine sulfate and BW284c51, but not to iso-OMPA; and (3) its activity is inhibited by excess of substrate, a characteristic of typical AChE. in vitro inhibitions were observed only for carbaryl exposure while exposure to chlorantraniliprole and to relevant environmental concentrations of psychiatric drugs did not cause any significant effect on AChE activity. This study suggests that AChE activity in caddisflies can indeed be used to discriminate the effects of specific insecticides in monitoring programs. The use of non-target species such as caddisflies in ecotoxicological research in lotic ecosystems is also discussed.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2014; 104C:263-268. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.03.012 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Organophosphorous and carbamates insecticides are ones of the most popular classes of pesticides used in agriculture. Its success relies on their high acute toxicity and rapid environmental degradation. These insecticides inhibit cholinesterase and cause severe effects on aquatic non-target species, particularly in invertebrates. Since the properties of cholinesterases may differ between species, it is necessary to characterize them before their use as biomarkers. Also organophosphorous and carbamates inhibit carboxylesterases and the use of both enzymes for biomonitoring is suggested. Azinphos-methyl is an organophosphorous insecticide used in several parts of the word. In Argentina, it is the most applied insecticide in fruit production in the north Patagonian region. It was detected with the highest frequency in superficial and groundwater of the region. This work aims to evaluate the sensitivity of B. straminea cholinesterases and carboxylesterases to the OP azinphos-methyl including estimations of 48h NOEC and IC50 of the pesticide and subchronic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. These will allow us to evaluate the possibility of using cholinesterase and carboxylesterase of B. straminea as sensitive biomarkers. Previously a partial characterization of these enzymes will be performed. As in most invertebrates, acetylthiocholine was the preferred hydrolyzed substrate of B. straminea ChE, followed by propionylthiocholine and being butyrylthiocholine hydrolysis very low. Cholinesterase activity of B. straminea was significantly inhibited by the selective cholinesterases inhibitor (eserine) and by the selective inhibitor of mammalian acethylcholinesterase (BW284c51). In contrast, iso-OMPA, a specific inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase, did not inhibit cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that cholinesterase activity in total soft tissue of B. straminea corresponds to acethylcholinesterase. Carboxylesterases activity was one order of magnitude higher than cholinesterase. A greater efficiency (Vmax/Km) was obtained using acetylthiocholine and p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Acute exposure to azinphos-methyl did not cause inhibition of cholinesterase activity until 10mgL(-1) used. Carboxylesterases towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate was inhibited by azinphos-methyl being the IC502.20±0.75mgL(-1) of azinphos-methyl. Subchronic exposure to environmental concentrations of azinphos-methyl (0.02 and 0.2mgL(-1)) produced a decrease in survival, protein content and carboxylesterases activity despite no inhibition of cholinesterase activity was observed. B. straminea cholinesterase is not a sensible biomarker. On the contrary, carboxylesterases activity was inhibited by azinphos-methyl. Carboxylesterases could be protecting cholinesterase activity and therefore, protecting the organism from neurotoxicity. This work confirms the advantages of measuring cholinesterases and carboxylesterases jointly in aquatic biomonitoring of pesticide contamination. This becomes relevant in order to find more sensitive biomarkers and new strategies to protect non-target aquatic organisms from pesticide contamination.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 08/2014; 109C:85-92. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.07.038 · 2.48 Impact Factor