As emergency physicians perform bedside ultrasound with greater frequency, greater numbers of incidental and potentially unfamiliar sonographic findings will be encountered.
Illustrate, discuss, and briefly review literature regarding one such finding and diagnosis in right upper quadrant sonography.
A middle-aged woman was evaluated in the Emergency Department for abdominal pain. Limited bedside sonography of the gallbladder revealed mural thickening and comet-tailing. A diagnosis of adenomyomatosis was made.
Gallbladder adenomyomatosis can produce ultrasound findings similar to those of more serious and emergent gallbladder diseases. Cognizance of the sonographic details and typical clinical characteristics will allow the emergency physician to appropriately assess and disposition patients with this condition.
"Such ring-down has been proposed to result from reverberation between the near and far surfaces of the sinuses themselves, closely adjacent intrasinus papillary projections, or contained cholesterol crystals. Sonographic findings of ring-down and polypoid projections of <10 mm suggest ADMG [3–5]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the case of the youngest patient with adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in a female infant diagnosed at 4 months of age. This diagnosis was made based on characteristic ultrasonography findings in a patient that was undergoing routine surveillance for a suspected clinical diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The patient remains asymptomatic and currently no surgical interventions have been needed. We review the pathophysiology and ultrasonographic findings of this rare condition and present a comparison with the only other four pediatric cases of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallbladder adenomyomatosis (GBA) is a hyperplastic disease affecting the wall of the gallbladder, with some typical features. It has historically been considered a benign condition, nevertheless recent reports highlighted a potential role of GBA in predisposing to malignancies of the gallbladder.
We reviewed the literature concerning GBA from its identification until July 2012. Owing to the relative rarity of the disease, studies often are case reports or case series. Thus we herein report a summary of the key-points concerning diagnosis and treatment of GBA, easily applicable in everyday practice, rather than a systematic review. Also, results are integrated with our recent experience.
In our experience, we observed a trend toward an increase of GBA during the last years, probably due to enhanced ultrasonographic technical advancements and physician's expertise. GBA has distinctive imaging features. Several recent reports highlight the potential risk of cancer associated with GBA; however the disease is still classified as a benign condition. Although its correlation with malignancy has not been demonstrated, it is prudent to recommend cholecystectomy in some cases. However, in selected asymptomatic patients, a wait-and-see policy is a viable alternative. We propose an algorithm, based on GBA pathological pattern (diffuse, segmental, localized or fundal), suitable for decision-making.
In symptomatic patients and if the diagnosis is doubtful, cholecystectomy is mandatory. Postponing surgery is an option to be offered to asymptomatic patients with low-risk GBA pattern who adhere to scheduled follow-ups.
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