Article

Regulation of Clusterin Activity by Calcium

Department of Cell Ultrastructure, Mossakowski Medical Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
Advances in Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 4.26). 01/2009; 104:33-58. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-230X(09)04004-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this chapter, the attention is put on Ca(2+) effect on Clusterin (CLU) activity. We showed that two CLU forms (secreted and nuclear) are differently regulated by Ca(2+) and that Ca(2+) fluxes affect CLU gene expression. A secretory form (sCLU) protects cell viability whereas nuclear form (nCLU) is proapoptotic. Based on available data we suggest, that different CLU forms play opposite roles, depending on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, time-course of Ca(2+) current, intracellular Ca(2+) compartmentalization, and final Ca(2+) targets. Discussion will be motivated on how CLU acts on cell in response to Ca(2+) waves. The impact of Ca(2+) on CLU gene activity and transcription, posttranscriptional modifications, translation of CLU mRNA, and posttranslational changes as well as biological effects of CLU will be discussed. We will also examine how Ca(2+) signal and Ca(2+)-dependent proteins are attributable to changes in CLU characteristics. Some elucidation of CLU gene activity, CLU protein formation, maturation, secretion, and intracellular translocations in response to Ca(2+) is presented. In response to cell stress (i.e., DNA damage) CLU gene is activated. We assume that commonly upregulated mRNA for nCLU versus sCLU and vice versa are dependent on Ca(2+) accessibility and its intracellular distribution. It looks as if at low intracellular Ca(2+) the delay in cell cycle allows more time for DNA repair; otherwise, cells undergo nCLU-dependent apoptosis. If cells are about to survive, intrinsic apoptosis is abrogated by sCLU interacting with activated Bax. In conclusion, a narrow range of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations is responsible for the decision whether nCLU is mobilized (apoptosis) or sCLU is appointed to improve survival. Since the discovery of CLU, a huge research progress has been done. Nonetheless we feel that much work is left ahead before remaining uncertainties related to Ca(2+) signal and the respective roles of CLU proteins are unraveled.

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