Hypoxia stimulates lactate release and modulates monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) expression in human adipocytes.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia modulates white adipose tissue function, and this includes stimulating glucose uptake and the expression of facilitative glucose transporters (particularly GLUT1) in adipocytes. This study has examined the effect of hypoxia on lactate release from adipocytes and whether the monocarboxylate transporters that mediate lactate transport (MCTs1-4) are expressed in human adipocytes and are induced by low O(2) tension. Exposure of human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome adipocytes to 1% O(2) for 24 h resulted in increased lactate release (2.3-fold) compared with cells in normoxia (21% O(2)). Screening by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the genes encoding MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 are expressed in human adipose tissue, and in adipocytes and preadipocytes in culture. Hypoxia (48 h) increased MCT1 (8.5-fold) and MCT4 (14.3-fold) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in human adipocytes, but decreased MCT2 mRNA (fourfold). MCT1 protein level was also increased (2.7-fold at 48 h) by hypoxia, but there was no change in MCT4 protein. The changes in MCT gene expression induced by hypoxia were reversed on return to normoxia. Treatment with the hypoxia mimetic CoCl(2) resulted in up-regulation of MCT1 (up to twofold) and MCT4 (fivefold) mRNA level, but there was no significant effect on MCT2 expression. It is concluded that hypoxia increases lactate release from adipocytes and modulates MCT expression in a type-specific manner, with MCT1 and MCT4 expression being hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) dependent. Increased lactate production and monocarboxylate transporter expression are likely to be key components of the adaptive response of adipocytes to low O(2) tension as adipose tissue mass expands in obesity.
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Article: Oxygen, a source of life and stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxygen is an essential element in the survival of complex organisms, however the level of oxygen, low or high, can be a source of stress depending on the biological context. Low levels of oxygen in tissues (hypoxia) can be the consequence of a number of pathophysiological conditions including ischemic disorders and cancer while relative, higher levels (hyperoxia) can lead to retinopathy of prematurity. The local oxygen environment and oxygen consumption dictate vascular homeostasis, vaso-proliferation and vaso-cessation, which is deregulated in these diseases through oxygen-dependent growth factors. In this review, we will introduce aspects of the physiology and biology of oxygen partial pressure and the molecular mechanisms implicated in oxygen sensing. We will outline the regulation and function of the key operator in cellular signalling of hypoxia, the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor. In addition, we will focus on cancer cell hypoxia and on its role in driving cell metabolism, pH regulation and survival.FEBS Letters 08/2007; 581(19):3582-91. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low plasma levels of adiponectin (hypoadiponectinemia) and elevated circulating concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 are causally associated with obesity-related insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism that mediates the aberrant production of these two adipokines in obesity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on production of adiponectin and PAI-1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Quantitative PCR and immunoassays showed that ambient hypoxia markedly suppressed adiponectin mRNA expression and its protein secretion, and increased PAI-1 production in mature adipocytes. Dimethyloxallyl glycine, a stabilizer of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), mimicked the hypoxia-mediated modulations of these two adipokines. Hypoxia caused a modest elevation of ROS in adipocytes. However, ablation of intracellular ROS by antioxidants failed to alleviate hypoxia-induced aberrant production of adiponectin and PAI-1. On the other hand, the antioxidants could reverse hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced dysregulation of adiponectin and PAI-1 production. H2O2 treatment decreased the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha), but had no effect on HIF-1alpha, whereas hypoxia stabilized HIF-1alpha and decreased expression of C/EBPalpha, but not PPARgamma. Taken together, these data suggest that hypoxia and ROS decrease adiponectin production and augment PAI-1 expression in adipocytes via distinct signaling pathways. These effects may contribute to hypoadiponectinemia and elevated PAI-1 levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2006; 341(2):549-56. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevation of plasma lactate levels induces peripheral insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined whether lactate infusion in rats suppresses glycolysis preceding insulin resistance and whether lactate-induced insulin resistance is accompanied by altered insulin signaling and/or insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps were conducted for 6 h in conscious, overnight-fasted rats with or without lactate infusion (120 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the final 3.5 h. Lactate infusion increased plasma lactate levels about fourfold. The elevation of plasma lactate had rapid effects to suppress insulin-stimulated glycolysis, which clearly preceded its effect to decrease insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both submaximal and maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport decreased 25-30% (P < 0.05) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscles of lactate-infused rats. Lactate infusion did not alter insulin's ability to phosphorylate the insulin receptor, the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, or IRS-2 but decreased insulin's ability to stimulate IRS-1- and IRS-2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activities and Akt/protein kinase B activity by 47, 75, and 55%, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). In conclusion, elevation of plasma lactate suppressed glycolysis before its effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, consistent with the hypothesis that suppression of glucose metabolism could precede and cause insulin resistance. In addition, lactate-induced insulin resistance was associated with impaired insulin signaling and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2002; 283(2):E233-40. · 4.51 Impact Factor