Hypoxia modulates white adipose tissue function, and this includes stimulating glucose uptake and the expression of facilitative glucose transporters (particularly GLUT1) in adipocytes. This study has examined the effect of hypoxia on lactate release from adipocytes and whether the monocarboxylate transporters that mediate lactate transport (MCTs1-4) are expressed in human adipocytes and are induced by low O(2) tension. Exposure of human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome adipocytes to 1% O(2) for 24 h resulted in increased lactate release (2.3-fold) compared with cells in normoxia (21% O(2)). Screening by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the genes encoding MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 are expressed in human adipose tissue, and in adipocytes and preadipocytes in culture. Hypoxia (48 h) increased MCT1 (8.5-fold) and MCT4 (14.3-fold) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in human adipocytes, but decreased MCT2 mRNA (fourfold). MCT1 protein level was also increased (2.7-fold at 48 h) by hypoxia, but there was no change in MCT4 protein. The changes in MCT gene expression induced by hypoxia were reversed on return to normoxia. Treatment with the hypoxia mimetic CoCl(2) resulted in up-regulation of MCT1 (up to twofold) and MCT4 (fivefold) mRNA level, but there was no significant effect on MCT2 expression. It is concluded that hypoxia increases lactate release from adipocytes and modulates MCT expression in a type-specific manner, with MCT1 and MCT4 expression being hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) dependent. Increased lactate production and monocarboxylate transporter expression are likely to be key components of the adaptive response of adipocytes to low O(2) tension as adipose tissue mass expands in obesity.
"to lactate, known as the Warburg effect. Although LDHA expression has not been upregulated in our adipocytes, we have detected an increase of lactate and glucose transmembrane transporter gene expression (MCT1, MCT4, GLUT1, GLUT3), which has been reported before also by Wood et al. (2007) and Perez et al. (2010). Thus our data clearly support previous data demonstrating increased glucose uptake by adipocytes in response to hypoxia (Wood et al., 2007; Regazzetti et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the complex impact of hypoxia on adipose tissue, resulting in biased metabolism, insulin resistance and finally diabetes we used mature adipocytes derived from a Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome patient for microarray analysis. We found a significantly increased transcription rate of genes involved in glycolysis and a striking association between the pattern of upregulated genes and disease biomarkers for diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Although their upregulation turned out to be HIF-1α-dependent, we identified further transcription factors mainly AP-1 components to play also an important role in hypoxia response. Analyzing the regulatory network of mentioned transcription factors and glycolysis targets we revealed a clear hint for directing glycolysis to glutathione and glycogen synthesis. This metabolic switch in adipocytes enables the cell to prevent oxidative damage in the short term but might induce lipogenesis and establish systemic metabolic disorders in the long run.
"Increased export of lactate to medium lowers pH of the cellular environment and the extra-cellular matrix. This may influence remodelling of the matrix . On the other hand, increased lactate uptake changes mitochondrial respiration. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours tumour cell survival and metastases. Brain metastases frequently occur in patients with advanced breast cancer.Effective treatment strategies are therefore needed against brain metastasis from breast carcinoma.
In order to identify differences in the capacity for lactate exchange, human T-47D breast cancer cells and human glioblastoma T98G cells were grown under 4 % or 20 % oxygen conditions and examined for MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expression on plasma membranes by quantitative post embedding immunogold electron microscopy. Whereas previous studies on MCT expression in tumours have recorded mRNA and protein levels in cell extracts, we examined concentrations of the proteins in the microvillous plasma membrane protrusions specialized for transmembrane transport.
In normoxia, both tumour cell types highly expressed the low affinity transporter MCT4, which is thought to mainly mediate monocarboxylate efflux, while for high affinity transport the breast tumour cells preferentially expressed MCT1 and the brain tumour cells resembled brain neurons in expressing MCT2, rather than MCT1. The expressions of MCT1 and MCT4 were upregulated in hypoxic conditions in both breast and brain tumour cells. The expression of MCT2 also increased in hypoxic breast cancer cells, but decreased in hypoxic brain tumour cells. Quantitative immunoblots showed similar hypoxia induced changes in the protein levels.
The differential expression and regulation of MCTs in the surface membranes of hypoxic and normoxic tumour cells of different types provide a foundation for innovation in tumour therapy through the selective targeting of MCTs. Selective inhibition of various MCTs could be an efficient way to quench an important energy source in both original breast tumour and metastatic cancer tissue in the brain.
"For example, GLUT1 gene expression has been shown to be substantially increased by hypoxia, as is basal glucose uptake (Wood et al., 2007, 2011; Yin et al., 2009). This is accompanied by increased lactate release under conditions of low O 2 tension and increased expression of the monocarboxylate transporter, MCT1 (Pérez de Heredia et al., 2010; Wood et al., 2011). Importantly, hypoxia directly results in insulin resistance in adipocytes (Regazzetti et al., 2009; Yin et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of hypoxia on global gene expression in human adipocytes has been examined using DNA microarrays. Adipocytes (Zen-Bio, day 12 post-differentiation) were exposed to hypoxia (1% O(2)) or 'normoxia' (21% O(2)) for 24 h and extracted RNA probed with Agilent arrays containing 41,152 probes. A total of 1346 probes were differentially expressed (>2.0-fold change, P < 0.01) in response to hypoxia; 650 genes were up-regulated (including LEP, IL6, VEGF, ANGPTL4) and 650 down-regulated (including ADIPOQ, UCP2). Major genes not previously identified as hypoxia-sensitive in adipocytes include AQP3, FABP3, FABP5 and PPARGC1A. Ingenuity analysis indicated that several pathways and functions were modulated by hypoxia, including glucose utilization, lipid oxidation and cell death. Network analysis indicated a down-regulation of p38/MAPK and PGC-1α signalling in the adipocytes. It is concluded that hypoxia has extensive effects on human adipocyte gene expression, consistent with low O(2) tension underlying adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity.
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2012; 118(3):112-20. DOI:10.3109/13813455.2012.654611 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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