Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing
ABSTRACT The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres, silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Maqusood Ahamed, Oct 29, 2014
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- "Increased detoxification enzyme activities in insect midgut and fat body tissues are often associated with enhanced detoxification of insecticides (Valles et al., 1999). Investigations made by Ahamed et al. (2010b) and Posgai et al. (2009) showed that AgNPs at high concentrations had induced heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress and apoptosis in D. melanogaster. Also in recent reports with chemically synthesized nano-Ag treatment at 2400 ppm on S. litura caused least mortality and had damaged the digestive system with symptoms of oozing of inner gut contents. "
ABSTRACT: Increased use of nanomaterials in various fields of science has lead for the need to study the impact of nanomaterial on the environment in general and on insect and plant life in particular. We studied the impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth and feeding responses of two lepidopteran pests of castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) namely Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. and castor semilooper, Achaea janata L. Larvae were fed with PVP coated-AgNPs treated castor leaf at different concentrations and their activity was compared to that of silver nitrate (AgNO3) treated leaf diets. Larval and pupal body weights decreased along with the decrease in the concentrations of AgNPs and AgNO3 in both the test insects. Low amounts of silver were accumulated in the larval guts, but major portion of it was eliminated through the feces. Ultrastructural studies of insect gut cell using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed accumulation of silver nanoparticles in cell organelles. Changes in the antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes of the treated larva were estimated. The effect of treatments showed differences in the activities of detoxifying enzymes, carboxylesterases (CarE), glucosidases (Glu) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) in the larval gut. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were also altered in the larval bodies due to the AgNPs treatments, suggesting that exposure of larvae to nanoparticles induces oxidative stress, which is countered by antioxidant enzymes. Induction of these enzymes may be an effective detoxification mechanism by which the herbivorous insect defends itself against nanoparticle treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Chemosphere 12/2014; 124(1). DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.11.029 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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- "ENMs have to be also addressed (Yokel and MacPhail 2011), and in particular reports about their induced pulmonary effects causing inflammatory lung injury have been published in the last years (Nemmar et al. 2003; Geiser et al. 2003). It has been shown that, due to their sizes, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, nanoparticles can move freely into the environment and then be inhaled by the human body, being capable to penetrate the biological structures, disrupting their normal function, leading to human exposure, which may result in a serious health risk (Buzea et al. 2007), as tissue inflammation (Baroli et al. 2007) or respiratory health effects (Simeonova and Erdely 2009; Posgai et al. 2009). There are other biological organs which are affected too due to the ability of nanomaterials to move through the body in the blood stream and to be assimilated by organs and tissues including the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, bone marrow, and nervous system (Lewinski et al. 2008). "
ABSTRACT: The optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have determined development of novel applications in catalysis, paints, wave filters, UV detectors, transparent conductive films, solar cells, or sunscreens. While the immediate advantages of using nano-ZnO in glass panel coatings and filter screens for lamps, as protecting products against bleaching, have been demonstrated, the potential environmental effect of the engineered NPs and the associated products was not fully estimated; this issue being of utmost importance, as these materials will be supplied to the market in quantities of tons per year, equating to thousands of square meters. In this study, ZnO-NPs with commercial name Zincox TM have been subjected to a comprehensive characterization, relevant for hazard assessment, using complementary physico-chemical methods. There-fore, the morphological investigations have been corroborated with XRD pattern analyses and UV– Vis absorption related properties resulting an excellent correlation between the geometrical sizes revealed by microscopy (8.0–9.0 nm), and, respectively, the crys-tallite size (8.2–9.5 nm) and optical size (7.8 nm) calculated from the last two techniques' data. Fur-thermore, the hydrodynamic diameter of ZnO-NPs and stability of aqueous dispersions with different concentration of nanoparticles have been analyzed as function of significant solution parameters, like con-centration, pH and solution ionic strength. The results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influ-ence on ZnO dissolution stability, the complete set of analyses providing useful information toward better control of dosage during biotoxicological tests.
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- "e material aggregation state ( Liu et al . 2009 ) . Larval ingestion leads to systemic uptake and tissue sequestration while adult treatment leads to whole - body coverage , loss of locomotor function and mortality . In addition , it has been demonstrated the usefulness of Drosophila to deliver nanoparticles via the Drosophila respiratory system ( Posgai et al . 2009 ) . In this system red fluorescent CdSe / znS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system , as visualized by fluorescent microscopy . In addition , silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles delivered by the respiratory route induced Hsp70 expression in flies , confirming the utility of this model . In a more r"
ABSTRACT: Health risk assessment of nanomaterials is an emergent field, genotoxicity being an important endpoint to be tested. Since in vivo studies offer many advantages, such as the study of the bioavailability of nanomaterials to sensitive target cells, we propose Drosophila as a useful model for the study of the toxic and genotoxic risks associated with nanoparticle exposure. In this work we have carried out a genotoxic evaluation of silver nanoparticles in Drosophila by using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test. This test is based on the principle that loss of heterozygosis and the corresponding expression of the suitable recessive markers, multiple wing hairs and flare-3, can lead to the formation of mutant clones in larval cells, which are expressed as mutant spots on the wings of adult flies. Silver nanoparticles were supplied to third instar larvae at concentrations ranging from 0.1-10 mM. The results showed that small but significant increases in the frequency of total spots were observed, thus indicating that silver nanoparticles were able to induce genotoxic activity in the wing spot assay of D. melanogaster, mainly via the induction of somatic recombination. These positive results obtained with silver nanoparticles contrast with the negative findings obtained when silver nitrate was tested.Nanotoxicology 11/2010; 5(3):417-24. DOI:10.3109/17435390.2010.529176 · 6.41 Impact Factor