Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing.

Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2320, USA.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 3.16). 10/2009; 408(2):439-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres, silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.
    Nanotoxicology 07/2014; · 7.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in commercial goods ranging from medical devices to home appliances. Their widespread application increase the risk related to their potential toxicity. Although several studies showed their acute hazardous effects on living animals, our understanding of chronic effects of AgNPs exposed by the environment we encounter in our everyday lives is still very limited. This is partly because of the lack of versatile animal model system for studying AgNPs effects on terrestrial animals including human. In this study, we used Drosophila model to study AgNPs toxicity in terrestrial animals, and found that long-term exposure of AgNPs, but not Ag ions, at low level (0.1 and 1μg/mL) significantly shortened the lifespan. By taking advantage of the power of Drosophila genetics, we also isolated a GAL4 enhancer trap line called M95, in which the expression of GAL4 is up-regulated in response to ingestion of AgNPs at concentrations as low as 0.1μg/mL. Interestingly M95 flies showed significantly increased tolerance to both AgNPs treatment and dry starvation probably due to up-regulation of JNK signaling. These findings suggest not only that M95 may be a very useful biomarker of AgNPs because of its high sensitivity and tolerance to AgNPs, but also that Drosophila may be a versatile terrestrial invertebrate model for studying the effects of AgNPs on human health.
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 06/2013; 36(2):548-556.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have determined development of novel applications in catalysis, paints, wave filters, UV detectors, transparent conductive films, solar cells, or sunscreens. While the immediate advantages of using nano-ZnO in glass panel coatings and filter screens for lamps, as protecting products against bleaching, have been demonstrated, the potential environmental effect of the engineered NPs and the associated products was not fully estimated; this issue being of utmost importance, as these materials will be supplied to the market in quantities of tons per year, equating to thousands of square meters. In this study, ZnO-NPs with commercial name Zincox TM have been subjected to a comprehensive characterization, relevant for hazard assessment, using complementary physico-chemical methods. There-fore, the morphological investigations have been corroborated with XRD pattern analyses and UV– Vis absorption related properties resulting an excellent correlation between the geometrical sizes revealed by microscopy (8.0–9.0 nm), and, respectively, the crys-tallite size (8.2–9.5 nm) and optical size (7.8 nm) calculated from the last two techniques' data. Fur-thermore, the hydrodynamic diameter of ZnO-NPs and stability of aqueous dispersions with different concentration of nanoparticles have been analyzed as function of significant solution parameters, like con-centration, pH and solution ionic strength. The results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influ-ence on ZnO dissolution stability, the complete set of analyses providing useful information toward better control of dosage during biotoxicological tests.


Available from
Oct 29, 2014