Active Cigarette Smoking, Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Work and Home, and Self-Rated Health
ABSTRACT Although active smoking has been reported to be associated with poor self-rated health (SRH), its association with secondhand smoke (SHS) is not well understood.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association of active smoking and SHS exposure with SRH.
A total of 2558 workers (1899 men and 689 women), aged 16-83 (mean 45) years, in 296 small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Smoking status and exposure levels to SHS (no, occasional or regular) among lifetime non-smokers were assessed separately at work and at home. SRH was assessed with the question: How would you describe your health during the past 1-year period (very poor, poor, good, very good)? SRH was dichotomized into suboptimal (poor, very poor) and optimal (good, very good). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for reporting suboptimal vs optimal SRH according to smoking status and smoke exposure were calculated.
Current heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day) had a significantly increased suboptimal SRH than lifetime non-smokers after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, physical and occupational factors (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.69). Similarly, lifetime non-smokers occasionally exposed to SHS at work alone had worse SRH than their unexposed counterparts (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.11). In contrast, lifetime non-smokers exposed at home alone had no significant increase in suboptimal SRH.
The present study indicates an increase in suboptimal SRH among current heavy smokers, and suggests that SHS exposure at work is a possible risk factor for non-smokers. Whether or not the association is causal, control of smoking at work may protect workers from developing future health conditions.
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- "Third, single mothers' physical activity to build strength was measured by the frequency of these activities (none [reference], 1–2, and 3 and more), determined by their responses to the question, " How often do you do physical activities specifically designed to strengthen your muscles such as lifting weights? " These three categories were similar to prior research (e.g., French et al., 2012; Johnson & Richter, 2002; Nakata et al., 2009), and also were based on the small percentage reporting four and more physical activities (3.93%). "
ABSTRACT: Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.Social Work in Health Care 05/2014; 53(5):478-502. DOI:10.1080/00981389.2014.896846 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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- "We dichotomized SRH into suboptimal (poor or very poor) and optimal (good or very good). Similar use of SRH is common in studies of this (Jylha et al. 2006; Nakata et al. 2009). Test–retest over 1 year using a similar SRH question (Nakata et al. 2010) in white-collar workers (n = 109) revealed a high reliability of this scale (r = 0.457, p \ 0.001). "
ABSTRACT: The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with self-rated health (SRH) was investigated in full-time employees of small- and medium-scale businesses (SMBs) in a suburb of Tokyo. A total of 2,579 employees (1,887 men and 692 women), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 SMBs were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire from August to December 2002. Work hours, sleep, and SRH were evaluated. Compared with those working 6-8 h/day, participants working >8 to 10 h/day and >10 h/day had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36 and 1.87, respectively]. Similarly, compared with those sleeping 6+ h/day and sufficient sleep, participants with short sleep (<6 h/day) and insufficient sleep had increased odds of suboptimal SRH (aOR 1.65 and aOR 2.03, respectively). Combinations of the longest work hours with short sleep (aOR 3.30) or insufficient sleep (aOR 3.40) exerted synergistic negative associations on SRH. This study suggests that long work hours and poor sleep and its combination are associated with suboptimal SRH.International Journal of Public Health 03/2011; 57(2):403-11. DOI:10.1007/s00038-011-0242-z · 2.70 Impact Factor