Although active smoking has been reported to be associated with poor self-rated health (SRH), its association with secondhand smoke (SHS) is not well understood.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association of active smoking and SHS exposure with SRH.
A total of 2558 workers (1899 men and 689 women), aged 16-83 (mean 45) years, in 296 small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Smoking status and exposure levels to SHS (no, occasional or regular) among lifetime non-smokers were assessed separately at work and at home. SRH was assessed with the question: How would you describe your health during the past 1-year period (very poor, poor, good, very good)? SRH was dichotomized into suboptimal (poor, very poor) and optimal (good, very good). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for reporting suboptimal vs optimal SRH according to smoking status and smoke exposure were calculated.
Current heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day) had a significantly increased suboptimal SRH than lifetime non-smokers after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, physical and occupational factors (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.69). Similarly, lifetime non-smokers occasionally exposed to SHS at work alone had worse SRH than their unexposed counterparts (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.11). In contrast, lifetime non-smokers exposed at home alone had no significant increase in suboptimal SRH.
The present study indicates an increase in suboptimal SRH among current heavy smokers, and suggests that SHS exposure at work is a possible risk factor for non-smokers. Whether or not the association is causal, control of smoking at work may protect workers from developing future health conditions.
"Third, single mothers' physical activity to build strength was measured by the frequency of these activities (none [reference], 1–2, and 3 and more), determined by their responses to the question, " How often do you do physical activities specifically designed to strengthen your muscles such as lifting weights? " These three categories were similar to prior research (e.g., French et al., 2012; Johnson & Richter, 2002; Nakata et al., 2009), and also were based on the small percentage reporting four and more physical activities (3.93%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.
Social Work in Health Care 05/2014; 53(5):478-502. DOI:10.1080/00981389.2014.896846 · 0.62 Impact Factor
"In the literature, there are a vast number of similar studies that differ in respect of participants' characteristics and measurement issues, a fact that hinders a complete "face-to-face" comparison with our own. However, our main findings are quite similar with those of the most pertinent previous studies, albeit in different cross-cultural settings, that have shown, the significant relations of SRH with smoking [17,18,20,22], regular physical exercise [16,17,19,22,23,28,32,33] and obesity [17,34,35]. Finally, sleep quality, although differently assessed in various studies, seems to have an important relationship with SRH [16,17,21,33,36,37]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-rated health (SRH) is a popular health measure determined by multiple factors. International literature is increasingly focusing on health-related behaviors such as smoking, dietary habits, physical activity, even religiosity. However, population-based studies taking into account multiple putative determinants of SRH in Greece are scarce. The aim of this study was to clarify possible determinants of SRH with an emphasis on the relationship between SRH and lifestyle variables in a large sample of urban citizens.
In this one-year cross-sectional study, a stratified random sample of 3,601 urban citizens was selected. Data were collected using an interview-based questionnaire about various demographic, socioeconomic, disease- and lifestyle related factors such as smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, sleep quality and religiosity. Multivariate logistic regression was used separately in three age groups [15-29 (N = 1,360), 30-49 (N = 1,122) and 50+ (N = 1,119) years old] in order to identify putative lifestyle and other determinants of SRH.
Reporting of good SRH decreased with age (97.1%, 91.4% and 74.8%, respectively). Overall, possible confounders of the lifestyle-SRH relationship among age groups were sex, education, hospitalization during the last year, daily physical symptoms and disease status. Poor SRH was associated with less physical activity in the 15-29 years old (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.14-4.33), with past or heavy smoking, along with no sleep satisfaction in the 30-49 years old (OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.35-7.74, OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.29-5.05, OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.1-2.92, respectively) and with obesity and no sleep satisfaction in the 50+ years old individuals (OR 1.83, 95%CI 1.19-2.81, OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.83-3.54). Sleep dissatisfaction of the 50+ years old was the only variable associated with poor SRH at the 0.001 p level of significance (OR 2.45, 99%CI 1.59 to 3.76). Subgroup analyses of the 15-19 years old individuals also revealed sleep dissatisfaction as the only significant variable correlated with SRH.
Slight differences in lifestyle determinants of SRH were identified among age groups. Sleep quality emerged as an important determinant of SRH in the majority of participants.
BMC Public Health 08/2011; 11(1):619. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-619 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"We dichotomized SRH into suboptimal (poor or very poor) and optimal (good or very good). Similar use of SRH is common in studies of this (Jylha et al. 2006; Nakata et al. 2009). Test–retest over 1 year using a similar SRH question (Nakata et al. 2010) in white-collar workers (n = 109) revealed a high reliability of this scale (r = 0.457, p \ 0.001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with self-rated health (SRH) was investigated in full-time employees of small- and medium-scale businesses (SMBs) in a suburb of Tokyo.
A total of 2,579 employees (1,887 men and 692 women), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 SMBs were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire from August to December 2002. Work hours, sleep, and SRH were evaluated.
Compared with those working 6-8 h/day, participants working >8 to 10 h/day and >10 h/day had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36 and 1.87, respectively]. Similarly, compared with those sleeping 6+ h/day and sufficient sleep, participants with short sleep (<6 h/day) and insufficient sleep had increased odds of suboptimal SRH (aOR 1.65 and aOR 2.03, respectively). Combinations of the longest work hours with short sleep (aOR 3.30) or insufficient sleep (aOR 3.40) exerted synergistic negative associations on SRH.
This study suggests that long work hours and poor sleep and its combination are associated with suboptimal SRH.
International Journal of Public Health 03/2011; 57(2):403-11. DOI:10.1007/s00038-011-0242-z · 2.70 Impact Factor
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