Department of Surgery of The University of Chicago, Chicago.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.21). 12/1942; 76(6):527-41.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Certain specimens of human semen shorten the coagulation time of whole blood because of the presence of active thromboplastic agents, while other samples prolong its coagulation time. Human prostatic fluid in large amounts always delays or abolishes blood coagulation. The delay or absence of clotting is counteracted by adding calcium ions and is due to the large concentration of citrate in prostatic fluid and in some semens. While most specimens of dog semen shorten the coagulation time of blood because of their thromboplastic activity, certain specimens render blood incoagulable or delay coagulation; in contrast to human semen, this adverse effect on coagulation is not overcome with calcium ions and is due to a different mechanism, the lysis of fibrinogen. The citrate content of dog prostatic fluid is small. Human semen which has become liquefied does not contain thrombin or prothrombin, but fibrinogen and thromboplastic substances are present. Beef fibrinogen added to semen is destroyed by incubation for 18 hours, but added prothrombin and thromboplastic substances are still present after this treatment. Dog semen, in some instances, contains small amounts of thrombin. The semens of man and dog contain a fibrinolysin for human blood which seems not to differ greatly from the fibrinolysin associated with hemolytic streptococci. The blood of the donor of prostatic fluid is susceptible to fibrinolysis by this fluid. However, the blood of persons with some diseases, is absolutely resistant to the action of seminal fibrinolysin. In how many diseases this happens has not yet been determined. The semens of man and dog both contain an agent capable of inactivating fibrinogen, but in different amounts. This activity may be called fibrinogenase. Human semen is rich in fibrinolysin, poor in fibrinogenase; dog semen is rich in fibrinogenase, poor in fibrinolysin. These species differences, together with the fact that it is easy by appropriate dilution to retain the stronger proteolytic agent and eliminate the weaker one, imply that fibrinolysin and fibrinogenase are different entities. Dog semen, and less constantly human semen, contain very small amounts of trypsin. All of these proteolytic agents derive from the prostate gland; their secretion in prostatic fluid constitutes a hitherto undescribed function for the prostate gland.

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    ABSTRACT: Seminal fluid proteins affect fertility at multiple stages in reproduction. In many species, a male's ejaculate coagulates to form a copulatory plug. Although taxonomically widespread, the molecular details of plug formation remain poorly understood, limiting our ability to manipulate the structure and understand its role in reproduction. Here I show that male mice knockouts for transglutaminase IV (Tgm4) fail to form a copulatory plug, demonstrating that this gene is necessary for plug formation and lending a powerful new genetic tool to begin characterizing plug function. Tgm4 knockout males show normal sperm count, sperm motility, and reproductive morphology. However, very little of their ejaculate migrates into the female's reproductive tract, suggesting the plug prevents ejaculate leakage. Poor ejaculate migration leads to a reduction in the proportion of oocytes fertilized. However, Tgm4 knockout males fertilized between 3-11 oocytes, which should be adequate for a normal litter. Nevertheless, females mated to Tgm4 knockout males for approximately 14 days were significantly less likely to give birth to a litter compared to females mated to wild-type males. Therefore, it appears that the plug also affects post-fertilization events such as implantation and/or gestation. This study shows that a gene influencing the viscosity of seminal fluid has a major influence on male fertility.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2013; 9(1):e1003185. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZusammenfassungGegenstand dieser Arbeit sind die Ergebnisse und statistischen Auswertungen von quantitativen Messungen der Citronensure in 130 Ejakulaten von unausgewhlten andrologischen Patienten. Dabei wurden die Citronensurewerte zu verschiedenen biologischen Parametern der Spermiogramme in Beziehung gesetzt. Unsere Ergebnisse lauten:1. Die Hufigkeitsverteilung aller Meβwerte lag zwischen 0 und 1040 mg %, in der überwiegenden Mehrzahl zwischen 0 und 300 mg %.2. In der Regression von Citronensure- und Fruktosekonzentration zeigte sich keine Signifikanz wegen der groβen Streuung der gefundenen Citronensurewerte.3. Aus den gleichen Gründen lieβ sich die steigende Tendenz der Citronensurekonzentration mit zunehmendem Lebensalter nicht statistisch sichern, whrend ein signifikanter Fruktoseabfall in höheren Altersgruppen nachzuweisen war.4. Eine Abhngigkeit der Citronensurekonzentration von der Spermiendichte und vom Ejakulatvolumen lieβ sich nicht nachweisen.5. Der Einfluβ erhöhter Citronensurekonzentrationen auf eine Beschleunigung der Wiederverflüssigung des Spermas deutete sich in unserem Untersuchungsgut zwar an, konnte aber auf Grund der groβen biologischen Streuung der Citronensurewerte nicht statistisch gesichert werden.SummaryThis paper deals with the results and statistical evaluations of determination of citric acid in 130 semen samples obtained from a non-selected clientele of andrological patients. Referring the variable concentrations of citric acid to several spermatological criteria of semen it was shown:1. Frequency of all determinations of citric acid ranged between 0 and 1040 mg %, mostly between 0 and 300 mg %.2. In our material we could not find statistical significance in the correlation of fructose and citric acid because of the very variable concentrations of the latter in the seminal fluid.3. Increased concentrations of citric acid partly were combined with increased age of our patients but there was no statistical proof of continuous parallelism.4. Furthermore the quantity of citric acid on the one side and the count of spermatic cells as well as the volume of the ejaculate on the other were found to be independent by statistical means.5. It was shown that high concentrations of citric acid may influence the time of re-liquefaction of coagulated semen, nevertheless there was no significant statistical evaluation of these observations.
    Andrologia 04/2009; 3(1):9 - 22. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on indirect evidence it has been suggested that the liquefaction of human seminal plasma involves fibrinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and that the coagulum is formed by proteins. In this preliminary investigation evidence is presented for the involvement of seminal plasma sialyltransferase in liquefaction which suggests that the coagulum may be composed of glycoproteins. It is proposed that the glycoproteins form a polymer by the chelation of divalent metal ions via the carboxylic acid moieties of the sialic acid groups of the glycoproteins. The glycoprotein polymer may then be dismantled by the reduction of the meal ions by the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid, possibly allowing enzymes to complete the liquefaction process. A total of 100 semen samples from 30 male subjects whose semen profiles were considered "normal" by an independent assessor, were examined for the following: (i) liquefaction time of the seminal plasma; (ii) seminal plasma sialyltransferase activity; (iii) spermatozoal motility, defined as directional or nondirectional; (iv) spermatozoal count, and (v) seminal plasma content of free L-ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and glutathione. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between sialyltransferase activity and the liquefaction time for seminal plasma. Similarly, multilinear regression analysis of the data showed that as the seminal plasma levels of L-ascorbic acid, total dehydroascorbic acid and glutathione increase, there is a decrease in spermatozoal motility and a decrease in the liquefaction time of the seminal plasma. The possible metabolic relationship of seminal plasma L-ascorbic acid and glutathione is discussed and a metabolic pathway is suggested.
    Andrologia 01/2009; 13(2):131-41. · 1.75 Impact Factor

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