Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.
ABSTRACT Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.
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ABSTRACT: Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene PORCN, which encodes a protein required for the secretion and signaling of Wnt proteins. While deletions are responsible for a small percentage of FDH-causing mutations, the vast majority of mutations are single-nucleotide substitutions or small deletions or insertions that can be identified by sequence analysis. In 2007, we implemented a PORCN gene sequencing test for individuals with a clinical diagnosis of FDH. To date, we have detected 12 novel PORCN mutations and 6 previously reported mutations in 53 such unrelated patients. The pathogenic PORCN mutations included nine nonsense mutations, three missense mutations, one small deletion, two small duplications, and three splice-site mutations. Of these mutations, two were found in affected men and were mosaic; one of these was found in three other affected women. The remaining 16 mutations were found only in women. All the mutations detected in women were presumed heterozygous. In addition to the disease-causing mutations, eight nucleotide variants of unknown significance were identified. Further characterization of these variants suggests that four of them are pathogenic mutations. These findings add to the heterogeneity of mutations in the PORCN gene that cause FDH.Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 10/2010; 14(5):709-13. DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2010.0089 · 1.15 Impact Factor