Article

Copper in the brain and Alzheimer’s disease

The Mental Health Research Institute, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
European Journal of Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.16). 10/2009; 15(1):61-76. DOI: 10.1007/s00775-009-0600-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. The brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage induced by unregulated redox-active metals such as copper and iron, and the brains of AD patients display evidence of metal dyshomeostasis and increased oxidative stress. The colocalisation of copper and amyloid beta (Abeta) in the glutamatergic synapse during NMDA-receptor-mediated neurotransmission provides a microenvironment favouring the abnormal interaction of redox-potent Abeta with copper under conditions of copper dysregulation thought to prevail in the AD brain, resulting in the formation of neurotoxic soluble Abeta oligomers. Interactions between Abeta oligomers and copper can further promote the aggregation of Abeta, which is the core component of extracellular amyloid plaques, a central pathological hallmark of AD. Copper dysregulation is also implicated in the hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, which is also a defining pathological hallmark of AD. Therefore, tight regulation of neuronal copper homeostasis is essential to the integrity of normal brain functions. Therapeutic strategies targeting interactions between Abeta, tau and metals to restore copper and metal homeostasis are discussed.

3 Followers
 · 
149 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nitrogen donor ligand was functionalized with polarable mesoporous silica as composite adsorbent, by a cost-effective and environmentally friendly procedure, for highly selective copper (Cu(II)) ions detection and removal from water. The nitrogen donor ligand of N,N(octane-1,8diylidene)di(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylaniline) was synthesized to be specific to Cu(II) ions. The composite adsorbent permitted fast and specific Cu(II) ions capturing via colorimetric naked-eye detection based on stable complexation [Cu(II)-ligand]n+ mechanism. The effect of pH value, interferential metal ions, initial Cu(II) concentration, and contact time on adsorption capability were investigated systematically. The adsorbent was selective toward Cu(II) as shown by a light yellow to green color change. This was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and the color change was observed for the visual detection of Cu(II) ions. The ions selectivity of the adsorbent toward Cu(II) was determined by changes in UV-vis reflectance spectra. However, the presence of competing ions showed no interference for the detection of Cu(II) ion by the composite adsorbent. The results demonstrated that the composite adsorbent exhibited excellent sorption performance for Cu(II) ions. The low detection limit and sorption capacity of the adsorbent were 0.10 µg/L and 200.80 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbed Cu(II) was eluted with suitable eluent and simultaneously regenerated into the initial form for next operation without significant deterioration in its nanostructure case cavities. The data also confirmed that the adsorbent is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly procedure for Cu(II) treatment. Therefore, the composite adsorbent can be considered as a potential adsorbent for Cu(II) ions monitoring and removal from wastewater.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 01/2015; 206:692–700. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.09.086 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nitrogen donor ligand was functionalized with polarable mesoporous silica as composite adsorbent, by a cost-effective and environmentally friendly procedure, for highly selective copper (Cu(II)) ions detection and removal from water. The nitrogen donor ligand of N,N(octane–1,8–diylidene)di(2–hydroxy–3,5–dimethylaniline) was synthesized to be specific to Cu(II) ions. The composite adsorbent permitted fast and specific Cu(II) ions capturing via colorimetric naked–eye detection based on stable complexation [Cu(II)–ligand]n+ mechanism. The effect of pH value, interferential metal ions, initial Cu(II) concentration, and contact time on adsorption capability were investigated systematically. The adsorbent was selective toward Cu(II) as shown by a light yellow to green color change. This was characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy and the color change was observed for the visual detection of Cu(II) ions. The ions selectivity of the adsorbent toward Cu(II) was determined by changes in UV–vis reflectance spectra. However, the presence of competing ions showed no interference for the detection of Cu(II) ion by the composite adsorbent. The results demonstrated that the composite adsorbent exhibited excellent sorption performance for Cu(II) ions. The low detection limit and sorption capacity of the adsorbent were 0.10 µg/L and 200.80 mg/g, respectively. The adsorbed Cu(II) was eluted with suitable eluent and simultaneously regenerated into the initial form for next operation without significant deterioration in its nanostructure case cavities. The data also confirmed that the adsorbent is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly procedure for Cu(II) treatment. Therefore, the composite adsorbent can be considered as a potential adsorbent for Cu(II) ions monitoring and removal from wastewater.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 01/2015; 206:692-700. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel Schiff base moiety 1 was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and HRMS. The selectivity and sensitivity of 1 toward Cu2+ ions was investigated by colorimetric, UV-vis, electrochemical, proton NMR experiments. It exhibits highly selective and sensitive recognition toward Cu2+ ion over other metal ions in a wide pH range. The complex formed between 1 and Cu2+ was found to be 1:1 stoichiometry with an association constant of 1.0 × 106 M−1.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 12/2014; 210. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.12.130 · 3.84 Impact Factor