Bacterial infection prevention after hematopoietic cell transplantation

Department of Pediatrics, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
Bone marrow transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.47). 10/2009; 44(8):467-70. DOI: 10.1038/bmt.2009.257
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT bacteria, infections, hematopoietic cell transplantation


Available from: Murat Akova, Jun 02, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Although autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are fundamentally different procedures, a tailored approach to bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI) according to the type of HSCT has not yet been suggested. We evaluated the characteristics of BSI after HSCT, with a focus on comparison of BSIs between recipients of autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) and allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT). Among 134 patients (59 received allo-HSCT and 75 received auto-HSCT) who underwent HSCT, BSIs were reported earlier in patients who underwent auto-HSCT, compared with those who underwent allo-HSCT (mean 12.1 ± 3.4 days versus 32.8 ± 27.1 days, P = .006). Among patients receiving allo-HSCT, postneutrophil-engraftment bacterial BSI showed an association with grade ≥2 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In patients who underwent auto-HSCT, results of multivariate analysis showed that not receiving prophylactic antibiotics (P = .004) and having elevated serum C-reactive protein (P = .034) were risk factors of BSI. Elevated CRP (P = .01) and acute GVHD ≥ grade 2 (P = .002) were independent risk factors in patients who underwent allo-HSCT. Those differences originated mainly from the impact of acute GVHD-related postengraftment BSIs of patients who underwent allo-HSCT. To establish the best defense strategy against BSI, the distinctive natures of bacterial BSI after HSCT between auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT should be considered.
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    ABSTRACT: The value of surveillance cultures in predicting systemic infections and in guiding antimicrobial treatment is controversial. We investigated 57 pediatric allo-SCTs between 2007 and 2009. ALL (34), AML (5), and severe aplastic anemia (4) were the largest patient groups. Conditioning was TBI-based in 87% and 54% developed GVHD (21% grade III-IV). Of the 2594 weekly colonization samples, 24% were positive (fecal bacteria 86%, fecal fungi 16%, Clostridium difficile 16%; throat bacteria 17% and throat fungi 4%). Enterobacteria and enterococci were the most common fecal findings, staphylococci and streptococci in the throat. Of the bacterial stool samples pretransplant, 74% (mostly enterococci) were resistant to our first-line antibiotics (ceftazidime and cloxacillin). Candida species accounted for the majority of the fungal findings: 62% of the fecal and 78% in the throat. A total of 170 clinical infection episodes were recorded, and in 12 of these, the bacterial blood culture was positive. In 4/12 cases, the pathogen was detected in surveillance culture previously, leading to sensitivity and specificity of 33.3 and 47.4%, respectively. Positive predictive value of bacterial surveillance cultures was 0.9%. The antimicrobial treatment was changed in only five cases based on the surveillance culture results. Weekly surveillance cultures seldom provided clinical benefit and were not cost-effective.
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    ABSTRACT: The inaugural meeting of 'New Frontiers in Pediatric Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation' organized by the Pediatric Blood and Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) was held at the American Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Annual Meeting. This meeting provided an international platform for physicians and investigators active in the research and utilization of pediatric Allo-SCT in children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant disease (NMD), to share information and develop future collaborative strategies. The primary objectives of the conference included: (1) to present advances in Allo-SCT in pediatric ALL and novel pre and post-transplant immunotherapy; (2) to highlight new strategies in alternative allogeneic stem cell donor sources for children and adolescents with non-malignant hematological disorders; (3) to discuss timing of immune reconstitution after Allo-SCT and methods of facilitating more rapid recovery of immunity; (4) to identify strategies of utilizing Allo-SCT in pediatric myeloproliferative disorders; (5) to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hematological complications post pediatric Allo-SCT; (6) to enhance the understanding of new novel cellular therapeutic approaches to pediatric malignant and non-malignant hematological disorders; and (7) to discuss optimizing drug therapy in pediatric recipients of Allo-SCT. This paper will provide a brief overview of the conference.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 12 May 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.89.
    Bone marrow transplantation 05/2014; 49(9). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2014.89 · 3.47 Impact Factor