Article

Guidelines for preventing infectious complications among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: a global perspective PREFACE

Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Bone marrow transplantation (Impact Factor: 3). 10/2009; 44(8):453-5. DOI: 10.1038/bmt.2009.254
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT infection, prevention, guidelines

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    ABSTRACT: In the era of cost-consciousness regarding healthcare , provision of medical services in an outpatient setting has become increasingly attractive. We report an influenza outbreak in an ambulatory stem cell transplant center in 2013 that highlights unique identification and infection control challenges in this setting. Nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on patients with suspected influenza-like illnesses (ILI), defined by subjective fever or measured temperature of ≥37.7°C (≥100°F) with cough or sore throat during July 25, 2013 through August 7, 2013. In addition, testing was triggered by an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Specimens were analyzed by using eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel. Clinical and epidemiologic information was collected in real time, and frequencies were calculated on demographics, baseline clinical parameters, treatment methods, comorbidities, and symptoms of affected persons. Thirty-one patients had influenza A (H3N2) infection during July 25, 2013 through August 7, 2013. Only 7 patients (23%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists ILI case definition. Twenty-five patients (81%) had received ≥1 transplant, with 13 (42%) having occurred within 1 year before the outbreak. Twenty-five patients (81%) had received B-cell active chemotherapy <60 days before influenza diagnosis, 6 (19%) were neutropenic, and 25 (81%) lymphopenic. Among clinical and laboratory markers analyzed, abnormal CRP was the most sensitive screening tool for influenza. Twelve (39%) patients were hospitalized (median stay, 10 days; range, 2-20). No deaths occurred. Immunocompromised hosts with influenza have atypical presentations. Existing surveillance case definitions might be insufficient to reliably identify influenza outbreaks in such patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy dramatically changed the clinical course of primary hypogammaglobulinemias, significantly reducing the incidence of infectious events. Over the last two decades its use has been extended to secondary antibody deficiencies, particularly those related to hematological disorders as lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) and multiple myeloma. In these malignancies, hypogammaglobulinemia can be an intrinsic aspect of the disease or follow chemo-immunotherapy regimens, including anti-CD20 treatment. Other than in LPDs the broadening use of immunotherapy (e.g., rituximab) and immune-suppressive therapy (steroids, sulfasalazine, and mycophenolate mofetil) has extended the occurrence of iatrogenic hypogammaglobulinemia. In particular, in both autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplantation Ig replacement therapy has been shown to reduce the rate of infectious events. Here, we review the existing literature about Ig replacement therapy in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, with special regard for subcutaneous administration route, a safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatment approach, currently well established in primary immunodeficiencies and secondary hypogammaglobulinemias.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:626. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00626
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    ABSTRACT: International travellers with immunocompromising conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, solid organ transplantation (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at a significant risk of travel-related illnesses from both communicable and non-communicable diseases, depending on the intensity of underlying immune dysfunction, travel destinations and activities. In addition, the choice of travel vaccinations, timing and protective antibody responses are also highly dependent on the underlying conditions and thus pose significant challenges to the health-care providers who are involved in pre-travel risk assessment. This review article provides a framework of understanding and approach to aforementioned groups of immunocompromised travellers regarding pre-travel risk assessment and management; in particular travel vaccinations, infectious and non-infectious disease risks and provision of condition-specific advice; to reduce travel-related mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 12/2014; 13(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tmaid.2014.12.007 · 1.54 Impact Factor

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