Parental psychopathology and socioeconomic position predict adolescent offspring's mental health independently and do not interact: the TRAILS study
ABSTRACT Familial risk factors have been implicated in the development of mental health problems in adolescents. Whether the associations between parental loading, as assessed by lifetime psychopathology, and offspring internalising and externalising problems were moderated by family socioeconomic position (SEP) was investigated. Two hypotheses of moderation were tested: (1) the "social push" hypothesis in which parental loading effects are stronger in contexts with low environmental risks and (2) the "vulnerability" hypothesis in which parental loading effects are stronger in high-risk environments.
In a population-based sample of 2149, familial loading and family SEP were assessed at baseline by parent reports. Offspring psychopathology was assessed by reports from multiple informants (parent, self and teachers). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent associations of parental loading and family SEP on offspring psychopathology and their potential interaction.
Both family SEP and familial loading had significant independent main effects on offspring internalising and externalising problems. However, the interaction terms were not significant and did not add any explanatory power to the model.
Lower levels of family SEP appear not to confer additional risks for mental health problems in offspring of parents with high loading on psychopathology. During early adolescence, parental psychopathology and low family SEP seem independent risk factors for offspring mental health problems. Results do not support either the social push or vulnerability hypothesis as no evidence of interactions between parental loading and family SEP were found.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Kennedy Amone-P'olak, May 11, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Previous research on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour has produced mixed findings showing variation in the strength of association. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic status and broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour, investigating variation across a range of antisocial subtypes and other potential moderators, including age, sex and informant. We identified 133 studies containing data suitable for effect size calculation, and 139 independent effect sizes were analysed (total N = 339 868). The global meta-analysis showed that lower family socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Moderation analyses revealed this relationship was stronger where callous-unemotional traits was the outcome, and where antisocial behaviour was reported by parents or teachers rather than self-reported. The relationship between family SES and antisocial behaviour, however, was independent of higher-level constructs such as national income inequality. These results indicate that SES can be considered a robust correlate of broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour but the strength of this relationship may depend on the antisocial subtype under investigation and the design of the study.Clinical Psychology Review 11/2014; 35. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2014.11.003 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Living with parents suffering from mental illness can influence adolescents' health and well-being, and adverse effects may persist into adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' mental health problems reported by their 15-16-year-old adolescents, the potential protective effect of social support and long-term dependence on public welfare assistance in young adulthood. The study linked data from a youth health survey conducted during 1999-2004 among approximately 14 000 15-16-year-olds to data from high-quality, compulsory Norwegian registries that followed each participant through February 2010. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios for long-term welfare dependence in young adulthood based on several risk factors in 15-16-year-olds, including their parents' mental health problems. Of the total study population, 10% (1397) reported having parents who suffered from some level of mental health problems during the 12 months prior to the baseline survey; 3% (420) reported that their parents had frequent mental health problems. Adolescent report of their parents' mental health problems was associated with the adolescents' long-term welfare dependence during follow-up, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.49 (CI 1.29-1.71), 1.82 (1.44-2.31) and 2.13 (CI 1.59-2.85) for some trouble, moderate trouble and frequent trouble, respectively, compared with report of no trouble with mental health problems. The associations remained significant after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, although additionally correcting for the adolescents' own health status accounted for most of the effect. Perceived support from family, friends, classmates and teachers was analysed separately and each was associated with a lower risk of later welfare dependence. Family and classmate support remained a protective factor for welfare dependence after correcting for all study covariates (HR 0.84, CI 0.78-0.90 and 0.80, 0.75-0.85). We did not find evidence supporting a hypothesized buffering effect of social support. Exposure to a parent's mental health problem during adolescence may represent a risk for future welfare dependence in young adulthood. Perceived social support, from family and classmates in particular, may be a protective factor against future long-term welfare dependence.BMC Public Health 04/2015; 15(1):413. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1734-1 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although young adults exhibit a high rate of psychiatric disorders, their rate of access to mental health care is low compared with older age groups. Our study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and the use of health care services for psychological reasons. We studied a community sample of 1103 French 22 to 35-year-old (TEMPO cohort study) who were surveyed by mailed questionnaire in 2009. Data were collected regarding participants' health (internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms in 1991 and 2009), health care use (access to health professionals and psychotropic medications in case of psychological difficulties), and socio-demographic factors (sex, age, employment status, marital situation, social support). Parental history of depression was ascertained based on TEMPO participants' and their parents' reports (in the GAZEL cohort study). In the 12months preceding the study, 16.7% of study participants saw a health professional and 12.8% took a psychotropic medication for psychological reasons. In multivariate regression, models adjusted for all socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, access to health professionals was associated with being unemployed/out of the labor force (OR=1.93; 95% CI=1.11-3.30), family situation (OR in participants living with a partner with no children: 2.16; 95% CI 1.26-3.72; OR in participants not living with a partner: 2.29; 95% CI=1.34-3.90), and having low social support (OR=1.75; 95% CI=1.21-2.54). The use of psychotropic medications was associated with female gender (OR=2.70; 95% CI=1.60-4.55), being unemployed/out of the labor force (OR=3.85; 95% CI=2.14-6.95), not living with a partner (OR=2.04; 95% CI=1.09-3.80) and having low social support (OR=1.65; 95% CI=1.05-2.59). Additionally, use of health services was associated with participants' and their parents' psychological difficulties.Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 06/2013; 61(4). DOI:10.1016/j.respe.2013.03.047 · 0.66 Impact Factor