Nondaily and social smoking: an increasingly prevalent pattern.
Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-1390, USA.Archives of internal medicine (impact factor: 11.46). 10/2009; 169(19):1742-4. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.315 pp.1742-4
Article: Exploring the next frontier for tobacco control: Nondaily smoking among New York City adults.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among current smokers, the proportion of Nondaily smokers is increasing. A better understanding of the characteristics and smoking behaviors of Nondaily smokers is needed. We analyzed data from the New York City (NYC) Community Health Survey to explore Nondaily smoking among NYC adults. Univariate analyses assessed changes in Nondaily smoking over time (2002-2010) and identified unique characteristics of Nondaily smokers; multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of Nondaily smoking in 2010. The proportion of smokers who engage in Nondaily smoking significantly increased between 2002 and 2010, from 31% to 36% (P = 0.05). A larger proportion of Nondaily smokers in 2010 were low income and made tax-avoidant cigarette purchases compared to 2002. Smoking behaviors significantly associated with Nondaily smoking in 2010 included smoking more than one hour after waking (AOR = 8.8, 95% CI (5.38-14.27)); buying "loosies" (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI (1.72-7.08)); attempting to quit (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI (1.36-3.96)). Nondaily smokers have changed over time and have characteristics distinct from daily smokers. Tobacco control efforts should be targeted towards "ready to quit" Nondaily smokers.Journal of Environmental and Public Health 01/2012; 2012:145861.
Article: Correlates of NNAL levels among nondaily and daily smokers in the college student population[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Recent simultaneous increases in nondaily smoking and decreases in daily smoking make the identification of nondaily smokers through biomarker measures as well as the relationship of biomarker levels to smoking behaviors important topics. However, little is known about biochemical identification and carcinogen exposure of nondaily smokers. One tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), has a long half-life, making it a useful marker for long-term and intermittent tobacco exposure. Thus, we examined correlates of urine NNAL levels among nondaily and daily smokers. Methods: In 2011, we obtained urine samples from 64 current cigarette smokers (37 nondaily; 27 daily) in the Southeastern US and assessed participants' sociodemographics, smoking-related information, and other tobacco use. Our sample included 14 participants concurrently using other combustible tobacco products and eight concurrently using smokeless tobacco. Results: Of six participants smoking for only one day in the past 30, four had detectable NNAL levels; thus, two nondaily smokers were excluded from the remainder of the analyses. In mul-tivariate analysis, average cigarettes per day on smoking days (B = 23.00, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 13.81, 32.20, P , 0.001) and number of days of smokeless tobacco use (B = 17.11, CI 13.53, 20.70, P , 0.001) were associated with NNAL levels among nondaily smokers (R 2 = 0.234). Multivariate analysis indicated that average cigarettes per day (B = 15.83, CI 2.89, 28.76, P = 0.02) was the only significant correlate of NNAL levels among daily smokers. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to identify a potential urinary NNAL (normalized for creatinine) cutoff point of 81.6 pg/mL/g creatinine (88.9% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity) to discriminate nondaily from daily smokers. Excluding polytobacco-product users from these analyses provided similar results. Conclusion: Different correlates of NNAL levels exist among nondaily and daily cigarette smokers. Urine NNAL demonstrates the potential to be used to discriminate nondaily from daily smokers among young adults.Current Biomarker Findings. 10/2012; 2012(2):2-1.
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