"One study followed non-daily smokers for 13 years (to age 21), finding that 26% continued to be non-daily smokers, 17% became daily smokers, and 57% no longer smoked (Kvaavik et al., 2014). Others have drawn attention to occasional smoking (e.g., Schane et al., 2009), but we wanted to explore systematic changes in relation to monthly smoking and ever smoking. If over the years monthly smoking was becoming more associated with heavier, daily smoking, this would be a " hardening " of smoking as an addiction; if monthly smoking was becoming more associated with lighter and non-daily smoking, this would be a " softening " of smoking as an addictive activity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess changes in monthly smoking in its relationship to daily smoking and heavier smoking in high school seniors. Public health agencies often report only "current use" of cigarettes among youth as any use in the past 30. days, even though additional measures are collected. Monthly use is a crude and changing indicator. Methods: Results from 1975 to 2013 from Monitoring The Future Project were plotted and analyzed by linear regression. Results: From 1975 to 2013, the percentage of monthly smokers who smoked daily decreased by 29% (21.2 percentage points) and monthly smokers who smoked 10. + cigarettes/day dropped by 57% (28 percentage points); the percentage of daily smokers who smoked 10. + cigarettes/day decreased by 40% (26.5 percentage points). Conclusion: Additional measures of frequency and intensity of use of cigarettes and other tobacco/nicotine products need to be more regularly reported. These results indicate softening rather than hardening of "current smoking" and have important implications for tobacco surveillance and for tobacco research because of a) increased likelihood of quitting smoking, b) health effects of cigarette smoking, and c) similar and interacting issues related to measuring the use of all tobacco/nicotine products.
"We also found that women were underrepresented among young adult nondaily smokers. This finding is in contrast to previous studies, which have found females to be overrepresented among nondaily smokers [3,12,17,19]. However, in Sweden, a pattern similar to our findings has been observed . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nondaily smoking appears to have remained stable in Western countries in recent years, alongside a steep decline in daily smoking. Nondaily smoking increases the risk of several diseases and premature mortality, but our knowledge about nondaily smoking is limited. The present study was designed to examine the stability of nondaily smoking during young adulthood, and to identify adolescent factors predictive of nondaily smoking compared with nonsmoking and non-nicotine-dependent and nicotine-dependent daily smoking.
A population-based sample (n = 942) of Norwegians was followed up by surveys for 13 years, from adolescence to young adulthood. Information about smoking patterns, nicotine dependence, school achievement, parents' and peers' smoking, and parental monitoring was collected. Data on parental and participants' education were obtained from a national register.
Of all nondaily smokers at age 21 years, 26% were still nondaily smokers at 27 years, while 17% had become daily smokers and 57% had quit. Bivariate analyses revealed that young adult nondaily smokers did not differ from nonsmokers on any of the included variables, while a number of differences in parental, peers' and individual characteristics were observed between nondaily smokers and the two categories of smokers in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses revealed that unorganized leisure time activities and peers' smoking differentiated nondaily smoking from nonsmoking. Higher educational achievement and less parental binge drinking predicted nondaily smoking and differentiated it from both categories of daily smoking.
The degree of nondaily smoking-stability from 21 to 27 years of age was modest, and most nondaily smokers quit smoking in the course of young adulthood. Young adult nondaily smokers were quite similar to nonsmokers, but differed substantially from both nicotine-dependent and nondependent daily smokers. The study suggests that nondaily smoking--at least in the absence of traditional risk factors for smoking--is usually a transitory behavior, with most people returning to nonsmoking.
BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-123 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"This is not a general rule, however, because biological factors interact with individual preferences and social factors. Indeed, smokers tend to crave for smoking more when they are eating than in other situational correlates (Dunbar et al., 2010) and there exists a category of smokers that accounts for about one fourth of the market, the so-called social smokers, who smoke primarily in social contexts, such as in bars, parties, restaurants, celebrations and in presence of others (Debevec and Diamond, 2012; Schane et al., 2009). Contrary to the trend for regular smokers, the proportion of social smokers is rising. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The debate on tobacco taxes and fat taxes often treats smoking and eating as independent behaviors. However, since there exists medical and sociological evidence about the interdependence between eating and smoking choices, antismoking policies may also affect the obesity prevalence and fat taxes could influence smoking behavior. We address this issue from a theoretical standpoint and propose a dynamic rational model where eating and smoking are simultaneous choices that jointly affect body weight and addiction to smoking. Focusing on direct and cross price effects, we compare tobacco taxes and fat taxes and we show that a single policy tool can reduce both smoking and body weight. In particular, fat taxes can be more effective than tobacco taxes at simultaneously fighting obesity and smoking.
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