Sex differences in force attenuation: a clinical assessment of single-leg hop performance on a portable force plate.
ABSTRACT Impaired biomechanics and neuromuscular control have been suggested as probable links to female sex bias in the onset of patellofemoral pain syndrome. There are limited objective, clinical measures for assessment of impaired biomechanics and neuromuscular control. The primary objective of this investigation was to examine sex differences in vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and force loading rate in young athletes performing maximum, repeated vertical single-leg hops (RVSHs). The authors hypothesised that females would demonstrate greater vGRF and force loading rate than males and show interlimb differences in force attenuation.
Paediatric sports medicine clinic.
109 Healthy high school, soccer and basketball athletes.
Participants performed RVSHs for 15 seconds on a portable force plate with a sampling rate of 400 Hz (Accupower; AMTI, Watertown, Massachusetts, USA).
Raw vGRF was filtered with a generalised cross-validation spline using a 50-Hz cutoff frequency and then normalised to potential energy. Force loading rate was calculated by dividing normalised vGRF by time-to-peak force. Group means were compared using analysis of variance.
The females demonstrated significantly greater normalised vGRF (p<0.001) and force loading rate (p<0.001) during landing than their male counterparts. Neither sex demonstrated significant interlimb differences in force attenuation (p>0.05).
The female athletes may have altered force attenuation capability during RVSHs as identified by increased vGRF and force loading rate compared with the male athletes. Portable force plates may be potential tools to identify altered force attenuation in clinical settings.
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ABSTRACT: A common rehabilitation strategy for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), which lacks scientific evidence, includes pulling the patella medially with tape to reduce pain and increase the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various patellar taping procedures on force production, EMG activity of the VMO and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, and perceived pain experienced by 30 women (27.3 +/- 1.53), half diagnosed with PFPS. The perceived pain, force, and EMG of the VMO and VL, were recorded while subjects performed maximal isokinetic leg presses at 30 degrees /s for each of the following patellar taping conditions: no tape (control), no glide (placebo), medial and lateral glide (experimental). The medial and placebo procedures significantly (P < 0.01) reduced perceived pain (70-80%) in PFPS subjects. Although patellar taping did not influence leg press force (P > 0.05), it increased the VMO activity and decreased the VL activity in PFPS subjects but had the opposite effect in healthy subjects. The findings suggest that taping the patella medially can contribute positively to PFPS rehabilitation. Because the medial glide and placebo taping conditions had similar effects, it is proposed that the benefits of patellar taping are not due to a change in patellar position but rather due to enhanced support of the patellofemoral ligaments and/or pain modulation via cutaneous stimulation.Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 08/2004; 14(4):495-504. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patellofemoral pain syndrome, which accounts for 25% of all sports-related knee injuries, is multifactorial in origin. A combination of variables, including abnormal lower limb biomechanics, soft-tissue tightness, muscle weakness, and excessive exercise, may result in increased cartilage and subchondral bone stress, patellofemoral pain, and subtle or more overt patellar maltracking. Because of the multiple forces affecting the patellofemoral joint, the clinical evaluation and treatment of this disorder is challenging. An extensive search of the literature revealed no single gold-standard test maneuver for that disorder, and the reliability of the maneuvers described was generally low or untested. An abnormal Q-angle, generalized ligamentous laxity, hypomobile or hypermobile tenderness of the lateral patellar retinaculum, patellar tilt or mediolateral displacement, decreased flexibility of the iliotibial band and quadriceps, and quadriceps, hip abductor, and external rotator weakness were most often correlated with patellofemoral pain syndrome.American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 04/2006; 85(3):234-43. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in hip motion and kinetics during a single leg bidirectional deceleration maneuver. The rationale for the development of this maneuver was to test dynamic hip control during the deceleration of three different types of single-leg landings. The hypothesis was that female athletes would display increased hip adduction angles and moments during the maneuver compared to male athletes. Thirty-six collegiate soccer players (19 female, 17 male) volunteered to participate. Subjects were instructed to start the maneuver balancing on one foot, to hop through an agility-speed ladder on the same leg "up two boxes, back one, and then up one and hold it." Hip kinematics and kinetics during all three landings were examined. Females demonstrated significantly greater hip adduction angles at initial contact during all three landings and greater maximal hip adduction during landings 1 and 2 compared to male athletes. Females also exhibited significantly increased external hip adduction moments during landing 1, however, no differences were found between genders during landings 2 and 3.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 04/2006; 24(3):416-21. · 2.97 Impact Factor