Violence in youth sports: Hazing, brawling and foul play

College of Education, School of Physical Activity and Educational Services, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.
British Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.03). 10/2009; 44(1):32-7. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.068320
Source: PubMed


By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognise that their connection to sport binds them together into a cohesive subset of sport injury and youth violence, past research has failed to show how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. The acceptance of violence within the sporting culture may, in part, explain why sports-related violence has not yet been widely recognised as a public health concern. This review shows that sports-related violence, including hazing, brawling and foul play, occurs among youth athletes of all ages and in a variety of different sports. The few studies to address this issue have all acknowledged the dangers of sports-related violence; however, no incident tracking method has been developed. Future research must provide accurate national estimates of the incidence of sports-related violence among youth, identify associated risk factors, evaluate preventive interventions and identify effective methods of distributing and implementing evidence-based interventions. Monitoring the magnitude and distribution of the burden of sports-related violence and building the scientific infrastructure necessary to support the development and widespread application of effective sports-related prevention interventions are essential first steps toward a reduction in the incidence of sports-related violence.

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    • "Each sport specifies which conducts are accepted [2] [3]. Therefore, a definition of aggression can be any way of behavior aiming to cause damage or injury towards others, including in that category physical aggression as well as verbal or nonverbal intimidation [4] [5]. When fighting sports such as boxing, Jujitsu, judo, or karate, cause damage, it is considered accidental, making it hard to assess that component. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aggression may be understood as a behavioral expression aimed to cause injury or damage to others. Anxiety is generated when stimuli are interpreted as threatening, inducing a state of activation by the autonomic system, and tension. This study aimed to investigate the associations between measures of trait and state anxiety and aggression in Jujitsu athletes. 23 athletes aged 14 to 58 years, male and female participated in the study, being assessed by the Competition Aggression Scale, STAI and CSAI. Results showed that less anxious fighters who suffered more pressure from their parents tended to physically attack their opponents. It also suggests that athletes that are more anxious tend to manipulate situations in their own favor.
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    British Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2010; 44(1):1-3. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2009.069484 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hazing rituals and ceremonies have been described in traditional, historical world cultures, junior and high school, the military, private schools, paramilitary organizations, fraternities and sororities, as well as sport (Allan and Madden 2008; Bryshun and Young 1999; Campo, Poulos, and Sipple 2005; Fields, Collins, and Comstock 2010; Johnson 2000, 2009; Linhares de Albuquerque and Paes-Machado 2004; Nuwer 1999; Winslow 1999; Zacharda 2009). Student athletes often endure hazing practices with 80% of NCAA athletes reporting some form of initiation (Hoover 1999) in exchange for membership affiliation. This qualitative study compared the similarities and deviations between contemporary initiations and historical traditions defining both the importance of cultures to establish "Rites of Passage" membership gateways and metamorphoses from nonmember to group. Results indicated that despite often abusive hazing ceremonies in sport, marked by hierarchies, power imbalances, and, at times, criminal behaviour, there still exists a demand for an entry ritual by the rookie contingency to mark their membership and identity within the team structure. Hazing traditions continue in the belief in what Turner (1986) describes as Communitas, despite indications from participants that hazing fractured relationships on the team - a marked contradiction of Communitas.© Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 36(3) 2011.
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