Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling.
ABSTRACT Priapism is a condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation. Of men with sickle cell disease (SCD), 40% display priapism. The disorder is a dangerous and urgent condition, given its association with penile fibrosis and eventual erectile dysfunction. Current strategies to prevent its progression are poor because of a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms for penile fibrosis in priapism. Here we demonstrate that increased adenosine is a novel causative factor contributing to penile fibrosis in two independent animal models of priapism, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice and SCD transgenic mice. An important finding is that chronic reduction of adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy successfully attenuated penile fibrosis in both mouse models, indicating an essential role of increased adenosine in penile fibrosis and a novel therapeutic possibility for this serious complication. Subsequently, we identified that both mice models share a similar fibrotic gene expression profile in penile tissue (including procollagen I, TGF-beta(1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA), suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways for progression to penile fibrosis. Thus, in an effort to decipher specific cell types and underlying mechanism responsible for adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis, we purified corpus cavernosal fibroblast cells (CCFCs), the major cell type involved in this process, from wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the major receptor expressed in these cells is the adenosine receptor A(2B)R. Based on this fact, we further purified CCFCs from A(2B)R-deficient mice and demonstrated that A(2B)R is essential for excess adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis. Finally, we revealed that TGF-beta functions downstream of the A(2B)R to increase CCFC collagen secretion and proliferation. Overall, our studies identify an essential role of increased adenosine in the pathogenesis of penile fibrosis via A(2B)R signaling and offer a potential target for prevention and treatment of penile fibrosis, a dangerous complication seen in priapism.-Wen, J., Jiang, X., Dai, Y., Zhang, Y., Tang, Y., Sun, H., Mi, T., Phatarpekar, P. V., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Xia, Y. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A(2B) adenosine receptor signaling.
Article: The use of enzyme therapy to regulate the metabolic and phenotypic consequences of adenosine deaminase deficiency in mice. Differential impact on pulmonary and immunologic abnormalities.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in a combined immunodeficiency brought about by the immunotoxic properties of elevated ADA substrates. Additional non-lymphoid abnormalities are associated with ADA deficiency, however, little is known about how these relate to the metabolic consequences of ADA deficiency. ADA-deficient mice develop a combined immunodeficiency as well as severe pulmonary insufficiency. ADA enzyme therapy was used to examine the relative impact of ADA substrate elevations on these phenotypes. A "low-dose" enzyme therapy protocol prevented the pulmonary phenotype seen in ADA-deficient mice, but did little to improve their immune status. This treatment protocol reduced metabolic disturbances in the circulation and lung, but not in the thymus and spleen. A "high-dose" enzyme therapy protocol resulted in decreased metabolic disturbances in the thymus and spleen and was associated with improvement in immune status. These findings suggest that the pulmonary and immune phenotypes are separable and are related to the severity of metabolic disturbances in these tissues. This model will be useful in examining the efficacy of ADA enzyme therapy and studying the mechanisms underlying the immunodeficiency and pulmonary phenotypes associated with ADA deficiency.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2000; 275(41):32114-21. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Adenosine A2A receptor occupancy stimulates collagen expression by hepatic stellate cells via pathways involving protein kinase A, Src, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling cascade or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prior studies indicate that adenosine and the adenosine A2A receptor play a role in hepatic fibrosis by a mechanism that has been proposed to involve direct stimulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The objective of this study was to determine whether primary hepatic stellate cells produce collagen in response to adenosine (via activation of adenosine A2A receptors) and to further determine the signaling mechanisms involved in adenosine A2A receptor-mediated promotion of collagen production. Cultured primary HSCs increase their collagen production after stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor in a dose-dependent fashion. Likewise, LX-2 cells, a human HSC line, increases expression of procollagen alphaI and procollagen alphaIII mRNA and their translational proteins, collagen type I and type III, in response to pharmacological stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors. Based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors of signal transduction, adenosine A2A receptor-mediated stimulation of procollagen alphaI mRNA and collagen type I collagen expression were regulated by signal transduction involving protein kinase A, src, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (erk), but surprisingly, adenosine A2A receptor-mediated stimulation of procollagen alphaIII mRNA and collagen type III protein expression depend on the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), findings confirmed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of src, erk1, erk2, and p38 MAPK. These results indicate that adenosine A2A receptors signal for increased collagen production by multiple signaling pathways. These results provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that adenosine receptors promote hepatic fibrosis, at least in part, via direct stimulation of collagen expression and that signaling for collagen production proceeds via multiple pathways.Molecular pharmacology 01/2008; 72(6):1626-36. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sickle cell anemia and the thalassemias are globally the most common class of inherited disorders. Current treatment options are limited (transfusion, iron chelation) and are not suited to large-scale use in developing countries where the population of affected individuals is expected to undergo a tremendous increase in the near future. As such, the development of more practical and more permanent therapies is urgently needed. Recently, transgenic and gene knock-out technologies have been used to create mouse models for sickle cell anemia and all of the clinically relevant thalassemias (hemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis, hemoglobin H disease, beta-thalassemia intermedia, beta-thalassemia major/Cooley's anemia). These newly developed murine models should play an important role in the development of improved approaches for treating these commonly occurring genetic diseases.Current Opinion in Hematology 04/1997; 4(2):88-93. · 4.52 Impact Factor