Classical swine fever: comparison of oronasal immunisation with CP7E2alf marker and C-strain vaccines in domestic pigs.

Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Department of Virology, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.13). 09/2009; 142(1-2):59-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.09.044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Effective oronasal vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) is essential to achieve protection in wild boar. However the currently available live CSF vaccines, e.g. C-strain, do not allow serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). A modified live marker vaccine candidate (CP7E2alf) has been recently developed (Reimann et al., 2004). This communication reports the comparison of CP7E2alf and C-strain virus vaccines during 98 days following oronasal immunisation in domestic pigs. C-strain vaccine virus was consistently detected in tonsils of all (n=30) animals from 3 to 77 days post vaccination (dpv) and in blood (n=36) between 3 and 13dpv by CSFV-specific rRT-PCR. CP7E2alf virus RNA was detected in 6 animals slaughtered between 4 and 63dpv by a BVDV-specific rRT-PCR. The chimeric virus was not detected in blood samples. As detected by CSFV E2-specific antibody ELISA and virus neutralisation tests, seroconversion first occurred at 11dpv in the C-strain vaccinated group and between 11 and 15dpv in the CP7E2alf vaccinated group. The serological response was still present at 98dpv. The CP7E2alf serological response remained negative using the CSFV E(rns) ELISA whereas seroconversion occurred in the C-strain vaccinated group. In conclusion, the primary replication site of CP7E2alf vaccine virus was found to be the tonsils as in the C-strain and virulent field strains. Persistence of CP7E2alf in the tonsils was also demonstrated up to 63dpv. Both vaccines showed immunogenicity after oronasal administration in domestic pigs. In contrast to the C-strain, CP7E2alf vaccine allowed the use of DIVA approaches in serological tests. This study confirms CP7E2alf as a promising marker vaccine candidate for oronasal vaccination programmes to control CSF in domestic pigs and wild boar.

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    ABSTRACT: CP7_E2alf is a promising marker vaccine candidate against classical swine fever (CSF). To better understand the mechanisms of protection, cytokine and isotype-specific antibody profiles were investigated in CP7_E2alf vaccinated pigs before and after challenge with the highly virulent CSFV strain "Koslov" at 14days or 6months post-vaccination. The interference of vaccination with CSFV pathogeny-related cytokine responses, previously described following a moderately virulent challenge, was confirmed. However, the levels of additional cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were significantly attenuated by vaccination following highly virulent challenge. This vaccine interference with cytokine response was not dependent on the immunization route or the consequence of competition between vaccine and challenge strain. Interestingly, IFN-γ enhancement and persistent high IgG2 levels suggested an important role of cell-mediated immunity in long-term protection against CSFV induced by CP7_E2alf vaccination. IgA production also revealed a stimulation of mucosal immunity, especially after oral administration of the vaccine.
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    ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is among the most important viral disease of domestic and feral pigs and has a serious impact on animal health and pig industry. In most countries with industrialized pig production, prophylactic vaccination against CSF is banned, and all efforts are directed towards eradication of the disease, e.g. by culling of infected herds and animal movement restrictions. Nevertheless, emergency vaccination remains an option to minimize the socio-economic impact of outbreaks. For this application, potent vaccines are needed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Among the promising candidates for next generation marker vaccines is the chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf. Efficacy studies are usually carried out using highly virulent CSFV strains of genotype 1 that do not mirror the current field situation where strains of genotype 2 predominate. To prove that CP7_E2alf also protects against these strains, efficacy was assessed after single oral vaccination of wild boar and single intramuscular vaccination of domestic pigs using challenge models with recent CSFV strains and the highly virulent strain "Koslov" (genotype 1.1). It could be demonstrated that CP7_E2alf pilot vaccine batches for intramuscular and oral use were able to protect pigs from challenge infection with a highly virulent CSFV. Moreover, solid protection was also achieved in case of challenge infection with recent field strains of genotypes 2.1 and 2.3. Thus, broad applicability under field conditions can be assumed.
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    ABSTRACT: Live modified vaccines to protect against Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), based on chimeric pestiviruses, have been developed to enable serological Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). In this context, the chimeric virus CP7_E2gif vaccine candidate is unique as it does not include any CSFV components. In the present study, the DIVA vaccine properties of CP7_E2gif were evaluated in comparison to the conventional live attenuated Riemser C-strain vaccine. Sera and tonsil samples obtained from pigs immunised with these two vaccines were analysed. No viral RNA was found in serum after vaccination with CP7_E2gif, whereas some serum samples from C-strain vaccinated animals were positive. In both vaccinated groups, individual viral RNA-positive tonsil samples were detected in animals euthanized between 7 and 21 days post vaccination. Furthermore, serum samples from these animals, together with archival samples from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2gif and subsequently CSFV challenged, were analysed for specific antibodies using ELISAs and for homologous neutralising antibodies. In animals vaccinated with CP7_E2gif, neutralising antibodies were detected from day 10. However, the sera remained negative for anti-CSFV E2-specific antibodies whereas pigs vaccinated with C-strain seroconverted against CSFV by 14 days after vaccination, as determined by a CSFV-E2 specific blocking ELISA. One week after subsequent CSFV challenge, a strong anti-CSFV E2 reaction was detected in CP7_E2gif vaccinated pigs and anti-Erns antibodies were detected from 10 days after infection. In conclusion, CP7_E2gif has the potential to be used as a DIVA vaccine in combination with detection of anti-CSFV E2-specific antibodies.
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