Classical swine fever: Comparison of oronasal immunisation with CP7E2a1f marker and C-strain vaccines in domestic pigs

Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Department of Virology, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 09/2009; 142(1-2):59-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.09.044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Effective oronasal vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) is essential to achieve protection in wild boar. However the currently available live CSF vaccines, e.g. C-strain, do not allow serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). A modified live marker vaccine candidate (CP7E2alf) has been recently developed (Reimann et al., 2004). This communication reports the comparison of CP7E2alf and C-strain virus vaccines during 98 days following oronasal immunisation in domestic pigs. C-strain vaccine virus was consistently detected in tonsils of all (n=30) animals from 3 to 77 days post vaccination (dpv) and in blood (n=36) between 3 and 13dpv by CSFV-specific rRT-PCR. CP7E2alf virus RNA was detected in 6 animals slaughtered between 4 and 63dpv by a BVDV-specific rRT-PCR. The chimeric virus was not detected in blood samples. As detected by CSFV E2-specific antibody ELISA and virus neutralisation tests, seroconversion first occurred at 11dpv in the C-strain vaccinated group and between 11 and 15dpv in the CP7E2alf vaccinated group. The serological response was still present at 98dpv. The CP7E2alf serological response remained negative using the CSFV E(rns) ELISA whereas seroconversion occurred in the C-strain vaccinated group. In conclusion, the primary replication site of CP7E2alf vaccine virus was found to be the tonsils as in the C-strain and virulent field strains. Persistence of CP7E2alf in the tonsils was also demonstrated up to 63dpv. Both vaccines showed immunogenicity after oronasal administration in domestic pigs. In contrast to the C-strain, CP7E2alf vaccine allowed the use of DIVA approaches in serological tests. This study confirms CP7E2alf as a promising marker vaccine candidate for oronasal vaccination programmes to control CSF in domestic pigs and wild boar.

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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines against Classical Swine Fever (CSF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether vaccination with the chimeric pestivirus vaccine CP7_E2alf is efficacious to protect young piglets born from vaccinated sows, thus with maternally derived antibodies (MDAs). Groups of 10 piglets each, with or without MDAs, were vaccinated either intramuscularly (IM), at an age of 3 or 6 weeks, or orally (OR), at an age of 6 weeks. Five piglets of each group were challenged with CSFV strain Koslov and protection against clinical disease, virus shedding and transmission were studied. Vaccination with CP7_E2alf, both in the presence of MDA's and in piglets without MDA's, protected against severe clinical signs, but virus shedding from most inoculated piglets and transmission to contact pigs was observed. However, virus transmission in the vaccinated piglets was significantly reduced as compared to non-vaccinated piglets, although the reproduction ratio's R calculated from the results in the vaccinated pigs from our study were not yet significantly below 1. The efficacy of vaccination with CP7_E2alf in the presence of MDAs (RIMvac = 0.8, RORvac = 0.4) seemed to be slightly less as compared to vaccination in the absence of MDAs (RIMvac = 0.2, RORvac = 0). On a population level, the results suggest that the CP7_E2alf vaccine is an effective tool in the control and eradication of CSF and, moreover, can be applied for both IM and oral use for young age groups, with MDAs having a limited effect on the efficacy.
    Veterinary Microbiology 09/2014; 174(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.08.030 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs with tremendous socio-economic impact. Vaccines are available for disease control. However, most industrialized countries are implementing stamping out strategies to eliminate the disease to avoid trade restrictions. These restrictions could be avoided through the use of marker vaccines such as CP7_E2alf. Marker vaccines have to be accompanied by reliable and robust discriminatory assays. In this context, a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for serological differentiation of the CSFV infected from CP7_E2alf vaccinated animals (DIVA) was developed. To this end, three viral proteins, namely CSFV E2, CSFV E(rns) and BVDV E2, were produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system and used as antigens in a microsphere immunoassay, which was further evaluated by testing a large panel of pig sera and compared to a well characterized commercial CSFV E2 Antibody ELISA and a "test" version of an improved CSFV E(rns) antibody ELISA. Under a cut-off median fluorescence intensity value of 5522, the multiplex microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 98.5% and specificity of 98.9% for detection of antibodies against CSFV E2. Both the microsphere immunoassay and the CSFV E(rns) ELISA gave the same results for 155 out of 187 samples (82.8%) for the presence of CSFV E(rns) antibodies. This novel multiplex immunoassay is a valuable tool for measuring and differentiating immune responses to vaccination and/or infection in animals.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 11/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00271-14 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Control of classical swine fever (CSF) by vaccination ideally requires that field strain infection can be detected irrespective of the vaccination status of the herd. To inform on the usefulness of molecular tests compatible with genetic Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) principles when using live-attenuated vaccines, tonsil homogenates from a vaccination-challenge experiment were analyzed using a differential real-time qRT-PCR for the C-strain vaccine or real-time qRT-PCR assays developed to specifically detect the challenge strains used.ResultsIn animals with high or moderate levels of blood viraemia, which were not, or not fully, protected by vaccination, challenge virus RNA was readily detected in tonsil homogenates. In three out of the seven vaccinated animals that had high or moderate viraemia, the vaccine strain RNA also could be detected but at lower levels. Lower but varying levels of challenge and/or vaccine virus RNA were detected in tonsil homogenate samples from animals with no or low-level viraemia, and in groups solely consisting of such animals, no transmission of infection to naïve in-contact animals occurred. In one group of animals that were vaccinated 3 days prior to challenge, viraemia levels varied from high to absent and transmission of challenge virus to naïve in-contact animals occurred. The DIVA assay revealed challenge virus in all tonsil homogenates from this group, even in those animals that did not have viraemia and were protected from clinical disease by vaccination. Such animals, particularly in a low biosecurity/informal farm setting, could constitute a risk for disease control in the field.Conclusions Genetic DIVA testing is useful for detecting the presence of field virus infection especially in non-viraemic animals without overt clinical signs but which are incompletely protected by vaccination. Such tests could particularly be useful to inform decisions prior to and during cessation of a control strategy that employs vaccination.
    BMC Veterinary Research 12/2014; 10(1):281. DOI:10.1186/s12917-014-0281-9 · 1.74 Impact Factor

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