Classical swine fever: Comparison of oronasal immunisation with CP7E2a1f marker and C-strain vaccines in domestic pigs

Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Department of Virology, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 09/2009; 142(1-2):59-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.09.044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Effective oronasal vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) is essential to achieve protection in wild boar. However the currently available live CSF vaccines, e.g. C-strain, do not allow serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). A modified live marker vaccine candidate (CP7E2alf) has been recently developed (Reimann et al., 2004). This communication reports the comparison of CP7E2alf and C-strain virus vaccines during 98 days following oronasal immunisation in domestic pigs. C-strain vaccine virus was consistently detected in tonsils of all (n=30) animals from 3 to 77 days post vaccination (dpv) and in blood (n=36) between 3 and 13dpv by CSFV-specific rRT-PCR. CP7E2alf virus RNA was detected in 6 animals slaughtered between 4 and 63dpv by a BVDV-specific rRT-PCR. The chimeric virus was not detected in blood samples. As detected by CSFV E2-specific antibody ELISA and virus neutralisation tests, seroconversion first occurred at 11dpv in the C-strain vaccinated group and between 11 and 15dpv in the CP7E2alf vaccinated group. The serological response was still present at 98dpv. The CP7E2alf serological response remained negative using the CSFV E(rns) ELISA whereas seroconversion occurred in the C-strain vaccinated group. In conclusion, the primary replication site of CP7E2alf vaccine virus was found to be the tonsils as in the C-strain and virulent field strains. Persistence of CP7E2alf in the tonsils was also demonstrated up to 63dpv. Both vaccines showed immunogenicity after oronasal administration in domestic pigs. In contrast to the C-strain, CP7E2alf vaccine allowed the use of DIVA approaches in serological tests. This study confirms CP7E2alf as a promising marker vaccine candidate for oronasal vaccination programmes to control CSF in domestic pigs and wild boar.

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