Measurement of R1 dynamics using sliding window-DESPOT.
ABSTRACT To measure longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) changes during contrast agent studies using a driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 (DESPOT) method with a sliding window (sw) acquisition.
A sw-DESPOT technique was implemented that uses several three-dimensional (3D) image data sets to calculate R1 with a temporal resolution of only a single data set. Different sources of systematic errors were studied in simulations, and the technique was tested in a tumor-bearing mouse using an intravascular contrast agent.
Consistent concentration distributions of the CA were calculated with a temporal resolution of 10 s.
Sw-DESPOT offers a precise and fast method to monitor the CA dynamics in 3D volumes.
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ABSTRACT: Fast T(1) mapping techniques are a valuable means of quantitatively assessing the distribution and dynamics of intravenously or orally applied paramagnetic contrast agents (CAs) by noninvasive imaging. In this study a fast T(1) mapping technique based on the variable flip angle (VFA) approach was optimized for accurate T(1) quantification in abdominal contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI. Optimization methods were developed to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ensure effective RF and gradient spoiling, as well as a steady state, for a defined T(1) range of 100-800 ms and a limited acquisition time. We corrected B(1) field inhomogeneities by performing an additional measurement using an optimized fast B(1) mapping technique. High-precision in vitro and abdominal in vivo T(1) maps were successfully generated at a voxel size of 2.8 x 2.8 x 15 mm(3) and a temporal resolution of 2.3 s per T(1) map on 1.5T and 3T MRI systems. The application of the proposed fast T(1) mapping technique in abdominal CE-MRI enables noninvasive quantification of abdominal tissue perfusion and vascular permeability, and offers the possibility of quantitatively assessing dilution, distribution, and mixing processes of labeled solutions or drugs in the gastrointestinal tract.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 04/2007; 57(3):568-76. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers to predict or monitor therapy response are becoming essential components of drug developer's armamentaria. Molecular and functional imaging has particular promise as a biomarker for anticancer therapies because it is non-invasive, can be used longitudinally and provides information on the whole patient or tumor. Despite this promise, molecular or functional imaging endpoints are not routinely incorporated into clinical trial design. As the costs of clinical trials and drug development become prohibitively more expensive, the need for improved biomarkers has become imperative and thus, the relatively high cost of imaging is justified. Imaging endpoints, such as Diffusion-Weighted MRI, DCE-MRI and FDG-PET have the potential to make drug development more efficient at all phases, from discovery screening with in vivo pharmacodynamics in animal models through the phase III enrichment of the patient population for potential responders. This review focuses on the progress of imaging responses to new classes of anti-cancer therapies targeted against PI3 kinase/AKT, HIF-1alpha and VEGF. The ultimate promise of molecular and functional imaging is to theragnostically predict response prior to commencement of targeted therapy.Pharmaceutical Research 07/2007; 24(6):1172-85. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is the acquisition of serial MRI images before, during, and after the administration of an MR contrast agent. Unlike conventional enhanced MRI, which simply provides a snapshot of enhancement at one point in time, DCE-MRI permits a fuller depiction of the wash-in and wash-out contrast kinetics within tumors, and thus provides insight into the nature of the bulk tissue properties. Such data is readily amenable to two-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling from which parameters based on the rates of exchange between the compartments can be generated. These parameters can be used to generate color-encoded images that aid in the visual assessment of tumors. DCE-MRI is used currently to characterize masses, stage tumors, and noninvasively monitor therapy. While DCE-MRI is in clinical use, there are also a number of limitations, including overlap between malignant and benign inflammatory tissue, failure to resolve microscopic disease, and the inconsistent predictive value of enhancement pattern with regard to clinical outcome. Current research focuses on improving understanding of the meaning of DCE-MRI at a molecular level, evaluating macromolecular and targeted contrast agents, and combining DCE-MRI with other physiologic imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography. Efforts to standardize DCE-MRI acquisition, analysis, and reporting methods will allow wider dissemination of this useful functional imaging technique.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 06/2003; 17(5):509-20. · 2.57 Impact Factor