Thyroid Remnant Dose: I-124-PET/CT Dosimetric Comparison of rhTSH versus Thyroid Hormone Withholding Before Radioiodine Remnant Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
ABSTRACT Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) recently was approved as an alternative to thyroid hormone withholding (THW) to elevate TSH for thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients. High ablation success rates are reported with diverse rhTSH-aided (131)I activities. Improved renal function causes approximately 50% faster radioiodine clearance under euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. Knowledge of comparative remnant radioiodine kinetics, particularly the remnant radiation dose in Gy/GBq of administered (131)I activity (RDpA), could assist in choosing rhTSH-aided ablative activities.
To compare the RDpA, determined through (124)I-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), under the two stimulation methods, we retrospectively divided into two groups 55 consecutive totally-thyroidectomized, radioiodine-naïve patients. The rhTSH group (n=16) received (124)I on thyroid hormone, 24 h after two consecutive daily intramuscular injections of rhTSH, 0.9 mg. The THW group (n=39) received (124)I after weeks-long THW, when serum TSH first measured > or = 25 mIU/L. We performed PET investigations 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h and PET/CT 25 h after (124)I administration.
Median stimulated serum thyroglobulin was 15 times higher (p=0.023) and M1 disease almost twice as prevalent (p=0.05) in rhTSH versus THW patients. Mean+/-standard deviation RDpA was statistically equivalent between the groups: rhTSH, 461+/-600 Gy/GBq, THW, 302+/-329 Gy/GBq, two-sided p=0.258.
rhTSH or THW deliver statistically equivalent radiation doses to thyroid remnant and may be chosen based on safety, quality-of-life, convenience and pharmacoeconomic factors. Institutional fixed radioiodine activities formulated for use with THW need not be adjusted for rhTSH-aided ablation.
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ABSTRACT: In low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), postoperative (131)I remnant ablation should employ a minimum effective activity; reports increasingly suggest efficacy of low activities, e.g. 1110 MBq/30 mCi. OBJECTIVES, DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: We retrospectively studied the ablation capability and diagnostic utility of the Minidose protocol, two 740-MBq/20 mCi outpatient administrations, 6-18 months apart, plus related diagnostic procedures, in 160 consecutive (near-) totally thyroidectomized low-risk DTC (pT1/N0-Nx) patients. Successful ablation comprised negative 740-MBq whole-body scintigraphy with cervical uptake below 0.1%, negative stimulated thyroglobulin (STg) (<1 ng/ml, negative thyroglobulin antibodies), and negative Doppler ultrasonography (performed around Minidose 2). The study took place at a referral center. Minidose imaging found unsuspected nodal or distant metastases in nine of 160 patients (5.6%). Ablation success rates after one (two) 740-MBq activity (activites) were 75.9% (90.2%) in 145 (132) evaluable imaging-negative patients. Compared with thyroid hormone withdrawal, recombinant human TSH stimulation was associated with higher urinary iodine excretion/creatinine, lower cervical uptake, and more frequent ablation success after the first 740 MBq; success rates no longer differed significantly after both administrations. Patients with STg below 10 ng/ml at Minidose 1 were oftener ablated at Minidose 2 (odds ratio=13.9, 95% confidence interval=2.5-76.4, P<0.003), attaining 92.0% final ablation success after recombinant human TSH preparation, suggesting that one 740-MBq activity should suffice in this subgroup. All 81 evaluable patients with prolonged follow-up (mean 41.8±21.9 months after Minidose 1) had no evidence of disease at the last visit. The Minidose outpatient ablation protocol is effective and diagnostically useful in low-risk DTC.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2012; 97(3):871-80. DOI:10.1210/jc.2011-1882 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of I-124 PET images with and without prompt gamma compensation (PGC) by comparing the recovery coefficients (RC), the signal to noise ratios (SNR) and the contrast to F-18 and Ga-68. Furthermore, the influence of the PGC on the quantification and image quality is evaluated. For measuring the image quality the NEMA NU2-2001 PET/SPECT-Phantom was used containing 6 spheres with a diameter between 10 mm and 37 mm placed in water with different levels of background activity. Each sphere was filled with the same activity concentration measured by an independently cross-calibrated dose calibrator. The "hot" sources were acquired with a full 3D PET/CT (Biograph mCT®, Siemens Medical USA). Acquisition times were 2 min for F-18 and Ga-68, and 10 min for I-124. For reconstruction an OSEM algorithm was applied. For I-124 the images were reconstructed with and without PGC. For the calculation of the RCs the activity concentrations in each sphere were determined; in addition, the influence of the background correction was studied. The RCs of Ga-68 are the smallest (79%). I-124 reaches similar RCs (87% with PGC, 84% without PGC) as F-18 (84%). showing that the quantification of I-124 images is similar to F-18 and slightly better than Ga-68. With background activity the contrast of the I-124 PGC images is similar to Ga-68 and F-18 scans. There was lower background activity in the I-124 images without PGC, which probably originates from an overcorrection of the scatter contribution. Consequently, the contrast without PGC was much higher than with PGC. As a consequence PGC should be used for I-124. For I-124 there is only a slight influence on the quantification depending on the use of the PGC. However, there are considerable differences with respect to I-124 image quality.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71729. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071729 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent availability of 124I, due in part to the spread of PET scanners, has opened up new possibilities for performing pre-therapeutic dosimetric studies in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. 124I PET/CT has remarkable clinical potential: for disease staging and the ablation of thyroid remnants, but also for studying patients at high risk or with suspected local relapses and/or metastases; furthermore, it has a low stunning risk. Many clinical studies have shown the superiority of 124I PET/CT versus 131I conventional imaging, which is attributable to the possibility of combining morphological and highly specific functional imaging data, avoiding most of the known pitfalls of 131I scanning. 124I PET/CT can be used to perform dosimetry, avoiding the side effects of 131I, to tailor treatments, instead of using fixed therapeutic activities, and to evaluate mean absorbed doses both to target lesions (thereby allowing adequate therapy planning and staging) and to non-target organs such as the salivary glands. In addition, the concomitant use of 18F-FDG PET/CT allows the detection of non-iodine-avid lesions, discriminating these from simultaneously occurring iodine-positive lesions. This review analyzes clinical studies on 124I PET/CT in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, and suggests possible future applications.06/2013; 1(3). DOI:10.1007/s40336-013-0021-3