Thyroid remnant dose: 124I-PET/CT dosimetric comparison of rhTSH versus thyroid hormone withholding before radioiodine remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer.
ABSTRACT Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) recently was approved as an alternative to thyroid hormone withholding (THW) to elevate TSH for thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients. High ablation success rates are reported with diverse rhTSH-aided (131)I activities. Improved renal function causes approximately 50% faster radioiodine clearance under euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. Knowledge of comparative remnant radioiodine kinetics, particularly the remnant radiation dose in Gy/GBq of administered (131)I activity (RDpA), could assist in choosing rhTSH-aided ablative activities.
To compare the RDpA, determined through (124)I-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), under the two stimulation methods, we retrospectively divided into two groups 55 consecutive totally-thyroidectomized, radioiodine-naïve patients. The rhTSH group (n=16) received (124)I on thyroid hormone, 24 h after two consecutive daily intramuscular injections of rhTSH, 0.9 mg. The THW group (n=39) received (124)I after weeks-long THW, when serum TSH first measured > or = 25 mIU/L. We performed PET investigations 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h and PET/CT 25 h after (124)I administration.
Median stimulated serum thyroglobulin was 15 times higher (p=0.023) and M1 disease almost twice as prevalent (p=0.05) in rhTSH versus THW patients. Mean+/-standard deviation RDpA was statistically equivalent between the groups: rhTSH, 461+/-600 Gy/GBq, THW, 302+/-329 Gy/GBq, two-sided p=0.258.
rhTSH or THW deliver statistically equivalent radiation doses to thyroid remnant and may be chosen based on safety, quality-of-life, convenience and pharmacoeconomic factors. Institutional fixed radioiodine activities formulated for use with THW need not be adjusted for rhTSH-aided ablation.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of I-124 PET images with and without prompt gamma compensation (PGC) by comparing the recovery coefficients (RC), the signal to noise ratios (SNR) and the contrast to F-18 and Ga-68. Furthermore, the influence of the PGC on the quantification and image quality is evaluated. For measuring the image quality the NEMA NU2-2001 PET/SPECT-Phantom was used containing 6 spheres with a diameter between 10 mm and 37 mm placed in water with different levels of background activity. Each sphere was filled with the same activity concentration measured by an independently cross-calibrated dose calibrator. The "hot" sources were acquired with a full 3D PET/CT (Biograph mCT®, Siemens Medical USA). Acquisition times were 2 min for F-18 and Ga-68, and 10 min for I-124. For reconstruction an OSEM algorithm was applied. For I-124 the images were reconstructed with and without PGC. For the calculation of the RCs the activity concentrations in each sphere were determined; in addition, the influence of the background correction was studied. The RCs of Ga-68 are the smallest (79%). I-124 reaches similar RCs (87% with PGC, 84% without PGC) as F-18 (84%). showing that the quantification of I-124 images is similar to F-18 and slightly better than Ga-68. With background activity the contrast of the I-124 PGC images is similar to Ga-68 and F-18 scans. There was lower background activity in the I-124 images without PGC, which probably originates from an overcorrection of the scatter contribution. Consequently, the contrast without PGC was much higher than with PGC. As a consequence PGC should be used for I-124. For I-124 there is only a slight influence on the quantification depending on the use of the PGC. However, there are considerable differences with respect to I-124 image quality.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71729. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients.Pediatric Radiology 05/2011; 41(8):1008-12. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: (124)I-PET/CT has a high clinical potential in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Two aspects deserve special mention: staging of recurrent or residual disease and pretherapy dosimetry. Used in combination (124)I-PET and CT allows foci of highly specific (124)I uptake to be localized with a low radiation dose, which is specifically important in pretherapy diagnostics. In addition in the combination of FDG-PET and CT non-iodine-avid lesions may be detected and may be discriminated from simultaneously occurring iodine-positive lesions. In clinical applications, the pretherapy (124)I-PET dosimetry may result in a significant alteration in the therapeutic procedure compared to standard therapy using fixed therapeutic activities. In this context, (124)I-PET dosimetry is a useful procedure especially in advanced DTC, and allows the administration of safer and more effective radioiodine activities as well as earlier multimodal interventions compared to standard empirical protocols. This review summarizes the clinical data on (124)I-PET/CT in patients with DTC, and addresses future prospects.European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2011; 38 Suppl 1:S48-56. · 4.53 Impact Factor