Thyroid remnant dose: 124I-PET/CT dosimetric comparison of rhTSH versus thyroid hormone withholding before radioiodine remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer.
ABSTRACT Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) recently was approved as an alternative to thyroid hormone withholding (THW) to elevate TSH for thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients. High ablation success rates are reported with diverse rhTSH-aided (131)I activities. Improved renal function causes approximately 50% faster radioiodine clearance under euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. Knowledge of comparative remnant radioiodine kinetics, particularly the remnant radiation dose in Gy/GBq of administered (131)I activity (RDpA), could assist in choosing rhTSH-aided ablative activities.
To compare the RDpA, determined through (124)I-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), under the two stimulation methods, we retrospectively divided into two groups 55 consecutive totally-thyroidectomized, radioiodine-naïve patients. The rhTSH group (n=16) received (124)I on thyroid hormone, 24 h after two consecutive daily intramuscular injections of rhTSH, 0.9 mg. The THW group (n=39) received (124)I after weeks-long THW, when serum TSH first measured > or = 25 mIU/L. We performed PET investigations 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h and PET/CT 25 h after (124)I administration.
Median stimulated serum thyroglobulin was 15 times higher (p=0.023) and M1 disease almost twice as prevalent (p=0.05) in rhTSH versus THW patients. Mean+/-standard deviation RDpA was statistically equivalent between the groups: rhTSH, 461+/-600 Gy/GBq, THW, 302+/-329 Gy/GBq, two-sided p=0.258.
rhTSH or THW deliver statistically equivalent radiation doses to thyroid remnant and may be chosen based on safety, quality-of-life, convenience and pharmacoeconomic factors. Institutional fixed radioiodine activities formulated for use with THW need not be adjusted for rhTSH-aided ablation.
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ABSTRACT: The recent availability of 124I, due in part to the spread of PET scanners, has opened up new possibilities for performing pre-therapeutic dosimetric studies in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. 124I PET/CT has remarkable clinical potential: for disease staging and the ablation of thyroid remnants, but also for studying patients at high risk or with suspected local relapses and/or metastases; furthermore, it has a low stunning risk. Many clinical studies have shown the superiority of 124I PET/CT versus 131I conventional imaging, which is attributable to the possibility of combining morphological and highly specific functional imaging data, avoiding most of the known pitfalls of 131I scanning. 124I PET/CT can be used to perform dosimetry, avoiding the side effects of 131I, to tailor treatments, instead of using fixed therapeutic activities, and to evaluate mean absorbed doses both to target lesions (thereby allowing adequate therapy planning and staging) and to non-target organs such as the salivary glands. In addition, the concomitant use of 18F-FDG PET/CT allows the detection of non-iodine-avid lesions, discriminating these from simultaneously occurring iodine-positive lesions. This review analyzes clinical studies on 124I PET/CT in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, and suggests possible future applications.Clinical and Translational Imaging. 01/2013; 1(3).
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ABSTRACT: Renal radioiodine excretion is ~50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered 131I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N=63) receiving 124I positron emission tomography/computed tomography (124I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n=27) or THW (n=36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-124I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n=71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n=66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p=0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to +9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue.European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2010; 37(12):2267-76. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients.Pediatric Radiology 05/2011; 41(8):1008-12. · 1.57 Impact Factor