Hormonal Responses to Different Resistance Exercise Schemes of Similar Total Volume

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 10/2009; 23(7):2003-8. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b73bf7
Source: PubMed


This study assessed the effect of different resistance exercise scheme (RES) designs of similar total of load lifted on the responses of testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase (CK). Twenty-seven healthy males performed 1 of 4 bench press workouts described by the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load: 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 50%-1RM (50%-1RM RES), 5 sets of maximum repetitions at 75%-1RM (75%-1RM RES), 10 sets of maximum repetitions at 90%-1RM (90%-1RM RES), or 8 sets of maximum repetitions at 110%-1RM (110%-1RM RES). Each RES was equated by the total volume of load lifted (repetitions x sets x load). Blood samples, collected pre-exercise (Pre) and post-exercise (Post) at 1 and 24 hours (24 h), were analyzed for total and free testosterone, total cortisol, and CK. In general, testosterone and cortisol showed little change within or between the different RES (p > 0.05), possibly because of the relatively low volume lifted and/or the small muscle mass activated by the bench press exercise. Cortisol was elevated after the 75%-1RM RES at the Post sample, with this response also exceeding the other RES (p < 0.05). The 24 h CK response was also elevated after the 75%-1RM RES (p < 0.05), thereby suggesting greater training strain for the same volume of load. These results confirm previous recommendations regarding the prescription of resistance exercise and the importance of total volume as a stimulus for activating the endocrine system and achieving long-term adaptation.

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Available from: Marco C. Uchida,
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    • "In contrast, exercise such as resistance training is known to influence skeletal muscle mass gain (Tesch, 1988). The factors that regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy in human adults in response to resistance training (RT) has largely focused on endogenous endocrine responses such as testosterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (Hasani-Ranjbar, Soleymani Far, Heshmat, Rajabi, & Kosari, 2012; R. R. Kraemer & Castracane, 2015; W. J. Kraemer, Duncan, & Volek, 1998; W. J. Kraemer et al., 1999; Madarame, Sasaki, & Ishii, 2010; Uchida et al., 2009). However, the endocrine response to RT has recently been met with scrutiny as having an obligatory role in muscle hypertrophy due to an observed transient flux and minimized impact on strength and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) outcomes (West, Burd, Staples, & Phillips, 2010; West & Phillips, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The factors that regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy in human adults in response to resistance training (RT) has largely focused on endogenous endocrine responses. However, the endocrine response to RT as having an obligatory role in muscle hypertrophy has come under scrutiny, as other mechanisms and pathways seem to also be involved in up-regulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Skeletal muscle myogenesis is a multifactorial process of tissue growth and repair in response to resistance training is regulated by many factors. As a result, satellite cell-fused myogenesis is a possible factor in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy in response to RT. The Wnt family ligands interact with various receptors and activate different downstream signaling pathways and have been classified as either canonical (β-catenin dependent) or non-canonical (β-catenin independent). Wnt is secreted from numerous tissues in a paracrine fashion. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a highly-regulated and intricate pathway that is essential to skeletal muscle myogenesis. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway may influence satellite cells to myogenic commitment, differentiation, and fusion into muscle fibers in response to injury or trauma, self-renewal, and normal basal turnover. The current literature has shown that, in response mechanical overload from acute resistance exercise and chronic resistance training, that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is stimulated which may actuate the process of muscle repair and hypertrophy in response to exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the current literature investigating the relationship of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and its effects on myogenesis is response to muscle damage and resistance exercise and training.
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    • "Acute program variables, including exercise intensity, volume, and rest interval, influence the endocrine response following resistance exercise (Kraemer and Ratamess 2005). Specifically, HV resistance exercise has been suggested to produce significantly greater elevations in both anabolic and catabolic hormones compared to HI resistance exercise (Kraemer et al. 1990; Hakkinen and Pakarinen 1993; Smilios et al. 2003; Linnamo et al. 2005; Crewther et al. 2008; McCaulley et al. 2009; Uchida et al. 2009). Systemic elevations of circulating hormones increase the likelihood of interaction with receptors located within muscle tissue and have been suggested to contribute to muscle growth consequent to resistance training (Kraemer and Ratamess 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance exercise paradigms are often divided into high volume (HV) or high intensity (HI) protocols, however, it is unknown whether these protocols differentially stimulate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine mTORC1 signaling in conjunction with circulating hormone concentrations following a typical HV and HI lower-body resistance exercise protocol. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) performed each resistance exercise protocol in a random, counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL), immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), 1 h (1H), 2 h (2H), and 5 h (5H) postexercise. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at BL, 1H, and 5H. Electromyography of the vastus lateralis was also recorded during each protocol. HV and HI produced a similar magnitude of muscle activation across sets. Myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were significantly greater following HI compared to HV (P = 0.01-0.02), whereas the lactate response was significantly higher following HV compared to HI (P = 0.003). The growth hormone, cortisol, and insulin responses were significantly greater following HV compared to HI (P = 0.0001-0.04). No significant differences between protocols were observed for the IGF-1 or testosterone response. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed a significantly greater (P = 0.03) phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor at 1H following HV compared to HI. Phosphorylation status of all other signaling proteins including mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6 were not significantly different between trials. Despite significant differences in markers of muscle damage and the endocrine response following HV and HI, both protocols appeared to elicit similar mTORC1 activation in resistance-trained men. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
    07/2015; 3(7). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12466
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    • "Numerous studies have examined the effects of different type of exercises on muscle soreness and damage (e.g. creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) and found increases in muscle injury following exercises (Uchida et al., 2009a, 2009b; Calle and Fernandez, 2010). However , still little is known on the acute effect of the tests used for the evaluation of physical qualities such as maximal strength. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new method to perform the one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, by combining previously validated predictive and practical procedures. Eight young male and 7 females participants, with no previous experience of resistance training, performed a first set of repetitions to fatigue (RTF) with a workload corresponding to ⅓ of their body mass (BM) for a maximum of 25 repetitions. Following a 5-min recovery period, a second set of RTF was performed with a workload corresponding to ½ of participants' BM. The number of repetitions performed in this set was then used to predict the workload to be used for the 1RM bench press test using Mayhew's equation. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate were monitored before, during and after each 1RM attempt. A significant effect of gender was found on the maximum number of repetitions achieved during the RTF set performed with ½ of participants' BM (males: 25.0 ± 6.3; females: 11.0x± 10.6; t = 6.2; p < 0.001). The 1RM attempt performed with the workload predicted by Mayhew's equation resulted in females performing 1.2 ± 0.7 repetitions, while males performed 4.8 ± 1.9 repetitions. All participants reached their 1RM performance within 3 attempts, thus resulting in a maximum of 5 sets required to successfully perform the 1RM bench press test. We conclude that, by combining previously validated predictive equations with practical procedures (i.e. using a fraction of participants' BM to determine the workload for an RTF set), the new method we tested appeared safe, accurate (particularly in females) and time-effective in the practical evaluation of 1RM performance in inexperienced individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 04/2015; 19(2):362-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.11.019
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