Hormonal Responses to Different Resistance Exercise Schemes of Similar Total Volume

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 10/2009; 23(7):2003-8. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b73bf7
Source: PubMed


This study assessed the effect of different resistance exercise scheme (RES) designs of similar total of load lifted on the responses of testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase (CK). Twenty-seven healthy males performed 1 of 4 bench press workouts described by the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load: 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 50%-1RM (50%-1RM RES), 5 sets of maximum repetitions at 75%-1RM (75%-1RM RES), 10 sets of maximum repetitions at 90%-1RM (90%-1RM RES), or 8 sets of maximum repetitions at 110%-1RM (110%-1RM RES). Each RES was equated by the total volume of load lifted (repetitions x sets x load). Blood samples, collected pre-exercise (Pre) and post-exercise (Post) at 1 and 24 hours (24 h), were analyzed for total and free testosterone, total cortisol, and CK. In general, testosterone and cortisol showed little change within or between the different RES (p > 0.05), possibly because of the relatively low volume lifted and/or the small muscle mass activated by the bench press exercise. Cortisol was elevated after the 75%-1RM RES at the Post sample, with this response also exceeding the other RES (p < 0.05). The 24 h CK response was also elevated after the 75%-1RM RES (p < 0.05), thereby suggesting greater training strain for the same volume of load. These results confirm previous recommendations regarding the prescription of resistance exercise and the importance of total volume as a stimulus for activating the endocrine system and achieving long-term adaptation.

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Available from: Marco C. Uchida, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "Acute program variables, including exercise intensity, volume, and rest interval, influence the endocrine response following resistance exercise (Kraemer and Ratamess 2005). Specifically, HV resistance exercise has been suggested to produce significantly greater elevations in both anabolic and catabolic hormones compared to HI resistance exercise (Kraemer et al. 1990; Hakkinen and Pakarinen 1993; Smilios et al. 2003; Linnamo et al. 2005; Crewther et al. 2008; McCaulley et al. 2009; Uchida et al. 2009). Systemic elevations of circulating hormones increase the likelihood of interaction with receptors located within muscle tissue and have been suggested to contribute to muscle growth consequent to resistance training (Kraemer and Ratamess 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance exercise paradigms are often divided into high volume (HV) or high intensity (HI) protocols, however, it is unknown whether these protocols differentially stimulate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine mTORC1 signaling in conjunction with circulating hormone concentrations following a typical HV and HI lower-body resistance exercise protocol. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) performed each resistance exercise protocol in a random, counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL), immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), 1 h (1H), 2 h (2H), and 5 h (5H) postexercise. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at BL, 1H, and 5H. Electromyography of the vastus lateralis was also recorded during each protocol. HV and HI produced a similar magnitude of muscle activation across sets. Myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were significantly greater following HI compared to HV (P = 0.01-0.02), whereas the lactate response was significantly higher following HV compared to HI (P = 0.003). The growth hormone, cortisol, and insulin responses were significantly greater following HV compared to HI (P = 0.0001-0.04). No significant differences between protocols were observed for the IGF-1 or testosterone response. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed a significantly greater (P = 0.03) phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor at 1H following HV compared to HI. Phosphorylation status of all other signaling proteins including mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6 were not significantly different between trials. Despite significant differences in markers of muscle damage and the endocrine response following HV and HI, both protocols appeared to elicit similar mTORC1 activation in resistance-trained men. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
    07/2015; 3(7). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12466
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    • "Numerous studies have examined the effects of different type of exercises on muscle soreness and damage (e.g. creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) and found increases in muscle injury following exercises (Uchida et al., 2009a, 2009b; Calle and Fernandez, 2010). However , still little is known on the acute effect of the tests used for the evaluation of physical qualities such as maximal strength. "
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    Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 04/2015; 19(2):362-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.11.019
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the salivary hormone and immune responses of elite female athletes to 3 different resistance exercise schemes. Fourteen female basketball players each performed an endurance scheme (ES-4 sets of 12 reps, 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load, 1-minute rest periods), a strength-hypertrophy scheme (SHS-1 set of 5RM, 1 set of 4RM, 1 set of 3RM, 1 set of 2RM, and 1set of 1RM with 3-minute rest periods, followed by 3 sets of 10RM with 2-minute rest periods) and a power scheme (PS-3 sets of 10 reps, 50% 1RM load, 3-minute rest periods) using the same exercises (bench press, squat, and biceps curl). Saliva samples were collected at 07:30 hours, pre-exercise (Pre) at 09:30 hours, postexercise (Post), and at 17:30 hours. Matching samples were also taken on a nonexercising control day. The samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol (C), and immunoglobulin A concentrations. The total volume of load lifted differed among the 3 schemes (SHS > ES > PS, p < 0.05). Postexercise C concentrations increased after all schemes, compared to control values (p < 0.05). In the SHS, the postexercise C response was also greater than pre-exercise data (p < 0.05). The current findings confirm that high-volume resistance exercise schemes can stimulate greater C secretion because of higher metabolic demand. In terms of practical applications, acute changes in C may be used to evaluate the metabolic demands of different resistance exercise schemes, or as a tool for monitoring training strain.
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