The effects of postactivation potentiation on sprint and jump performance of male academy soccer players.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects of both dynamic and isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) on sprint and jump performance and establish whether PAP methods could be used effectively in warm up protocols for soccer players. Twelve male soccer players performed 4 warm up protocols in a cross-over, randomized, and counterbalanced design. In addition to a control warm up, subjects performed deadlift (5 repetitions at 5 repetitions maximum), tuck jump (5 repetitions), and isometric MVC knee extensions (3 repetitions for 3 s) as PAP treatments in an otherwise identical warm up protocol. After each treatment, the subjects underwent 3 10 m and 20 m sprints 4, 5, and 6 minutes post-warm up and 3 vertical jumps (VJ) at 7, 8, and 9 minutes post-warm up. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences in the first 10 m (p = 0.258) and 20 m (p = 0.253) sprint and VJ (p = 0.703) performance and the average 10 m (p = 0.215), 20 m (p = 0.388), and VJ (p = 0.529) performance between conditions. There were also no significant differences in performance responses between the strongest and weakest subjects, but large variations in individual responses were found between the subjects. The findings suggest that there was no significant group PAP effect on sprint and jump performance after dynamic and isometric MVCs compared with a control warm up protocol. However, the large variation in individual responses (-7.1% to +8.2%) suggests PAP should be considered on an individual basis. Factors such as method, volume, load, recovery, and interindividual variability of PAP must be considered in the practical application of PAP and the rigorous research design of future studies to evaluate the potential for performance enhancement.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two protocols of post-activation potentiation (PAP) on swim start performance (SS).Fourteen trained swimmers (10 men and 4 women) volunteered for this study. An intra-group design of randomised repetitive measurements was applied. A previous SS trial, performed after a standard warm up (SWU), served as a reference. Two methods of PAP, performed after one hour of rest, were randomly added to the SWU: i) three lunges at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (LWU), and ii) four repetitions on the flywheel device YoYo squat (YWU). Swimmers were tested in an SS eight minutes after the PAP warm-ups. Kinematic variables were collected using three underwater digital video cameras fixed poolside and operating at 25 Hz, and one high speed camera focused on the block and operating at 300Hz. Data obtained from the video analysis were processed using a repeated measures analysis of the variance.The mean horizontal velocity of the swimmer's flight improved after both PAP methods, with the greatest improvement after YWU (F2,12 = 47.042, p < 0.001; SWU= 3.63 ± 0.11; LWU= 4.15 ± 0.122; YWU= 4.89 ±0.12 m/s). After YWU, it took the subjects less time to cover a distance of five meters (F2,12 = 24.453, p < 0.001) and fifteen meters (F2,12 = 4.262, p < 0.04). Subjects also achieved a higher mean angular velocity of the knee extension (F2,12 = 23.286, p < 0.001) and a reduction of the time on the block (F2,12 = 6.595, p < 0.05).These results demonstrate that muscle performance in the execution of an SS is enhanced after a warm up with specific PAP protocols. YWU leads to the greatest improvement in the performance of the swimmer's start and, therefore, may be especially beneficial in short events.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000696 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This investigation assessed whether prior heavy resistance exercise would improve the repeated sprint performance of 16 trained youth soccer players (Age 17.05 ± 0.65 years; height 182.6 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 77.8 ± 8.2 kg). In session 1, individual 1 repetition max was measured utilising a squat movement. In sessions 2 and 3, participants performed a running-based repeated anaerobic sprint test with and without prior heavy resistance exercise of 91% of their 1 repetition max. Times were recorded for each of the 6 sprints performed in the repeated sprint test and summed to provide total time. T-tests compared the two exercise conditions via differences in corresponding sprint times and total time. Analysis revealed significantly reduced total time with use of heavy resistance exercise (33.48 (±1.27) vs. 33.59 (±1.27); P = 0.01). Sprints 1 (P = 0.05) and 2 (P = 0.02) were also faster in the heavy resistance exercise condition (5.09 (±0.16) vs. 5.11 (±0.16) and 5.36 (±0.24) vs. 5.45 (±0.26) seconds respectively) although no other differences were shown. Findings demonstrate improved sprint times of trained adolescent soccer players after heavy resistance exercise although benefits appear not as sustained as in adult participants.Journal of Sports Sciences 01/2015; 33(10):1-7. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.979857 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Post Activation Potentiation (PAP)-inducing activities in four separate studies examining vertical (VJP) and horizontal (HJP) jump performance, shot put performance (SPP), and sprint performance (SP), in NCAA Division II athletes. Study One: Twelve male (mean±SD, age=20.2±2.0 y, height=178.1±6.2 cm, weight=73.3±6.43 kg) and eight female (age=20.1±1.0 y, height=169.6±5.5 cm, weight=59.8±7.6 kg) track athletes participated in HJP and VJP testing before and after performing a Parallel Back Squat (PBS) at 85% 1RM. Study Two: Ten (6 male, 4 female) shot put throwers (age=20.6±0.7 y, height=182.1±9.8 cm, weight=102.8±23.6 kg) participated in SPP testing for control (C), 3RM bench press (BP), and 3RM PBS protocols. Study Three: Seven football players (age: 20.4±1.6 y; weight: 87.8±8.3 kg; height: 184.3±7.2 cm) participated in SP testing before (PBS1) and after (PBS2) performing a 3RM PBS. Study Four: Eleven football players (age=20.3+1.8 y, height=180.6+7.5 cm, weight=86.1+12.8 kg) participated in VJP testing for C and 3RM PBS protocols. Results of Study One: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in VJP (PRE = 61.9±12.3 cm; POST = 63.6±11.6 cm) and HJP (PRE = 93.7±11.0 cm; POST = 95.9±11.5 cm). Study Two: SPP following PBS (11.67 + 1.92 m) was not different versus C (11.77±1.81), but BP (11.91±1.81 m) was significantly greater (p<0.05) than both PBS and C. Study Three: SP time was significantly lower for PBS2 (4.6014±0.17995 sec) versus PB1 (4.6557±0.19603 sec). Study Four: There was no difference in VJP for C (68.35±2.16 cm) versus PBS (68.12±2.51 cm). Our data shows that a 3RM PBS resulted in significant improvements in VJP, HJP, SPP, and SP in NCAA Division II male and female athletes. Strength and conditioning practitioners should potentially alter their warm-up programs to include PAP protocols to enhance performance of power athletes. However, there were non-responders in each study and coaches and athletes need to determine whether it is worthwhile to identify non-responders before implementing PAP protocols.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 10/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000728 · 1.86 Impact Factor