The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects of both dynamic and isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) on sprint and jump performance and establish whether PAP methods could be used effectively in warm up protocols for soccer players. Twelve male soccer players performed 4 warm up protocols in a cross-over, randomized, and counterbalanced design. In addition to a control warm up, subjects performed deadlift (5 repetitions at 5 repetitions maximum), tuck jump (5 repetitions), and isometric MVC knee extensions (3 repetitions for 3 s) as PAP treatments in an otherwise identical warm up protocol. After each treatment, the subjects underwent 3 10 m and 20 m sprints 4, 5, and 6 minutes post-warm up and 3 vertical jumps (VJ) at 7, 8, and 9 minutes post-warm up. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences in the first 10 m (p = 0.258) and 20 m (p = 0.253) sprint and VJ (p = 0.703) performance and the average 10 m (p = 0.215), 20 m (p = 0.388), and VJ (p = 0.529) performance between conditions. There were also no significant differences in performance responses between the strongest and weakest subjects, but large variations in individual responses were found between the subjects. The findings suggest that there was no significant group PAP effect on sprint and jump performance after dynamic and isometric MVCs compared with a control warm up protocol. However, the large variation in individual responses (-7.1% to +8.2%) suggests PAP should be considered on an individual basis. Factors such as method, volume, load, recovery, and interindividual variability of PAP must be considered in the practical application of PAP and the rigorous research design of future studies to evaluate the potential for performance enhancement.
"However, the conditioning muscle contraction might also induce fatigue and it is the balance between PAP and fatigue that determines the final effect of an explosive activity on performance (Docherty and Hodgson, 2007). The relation between PAP and fatigue is influenced by a combination of factors, such as volume, intensity and type of the conditioning activity (Bogdanis, Tsoukos, Veligekas, Tsolakis, and Terzis, 2014) as well as the recovery period between the conditioning activity and performance (Tillin and Bishop, 2009). The exact protocol of exercise for inducing potentiation is still under investigation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a plyometric protocol on round kick force and lower limbs’ jumping performance in elite karate athletes and to examine whether this plyometric protocol could be used over repeated trials in competitive warm up conditions. Ten elite level karate athletes (5 males and 5 females) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control condition of inactivity. The intervention condition consisted of 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps and was repeated over three trials interspersed by ten min of rest. Round kick force, and counter movement jump (CMJ) height, power, relative power, force and rate of force development (RFD) were measured at the beginning and after each trial. The two-way 2x4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant condition x time interaction for CMJ height (F= 6.510, p=0.02, η2=0.736). No main effects for time or between conditions were observed, however, CMJ height after the third trial was increased (+3.5%, p<0.003) compared to baseline performance. Significant correlations were found between round kick force and lower limbs’ jumping performance. The results of this study may provide useful information for competitive warming-up strategies in contact sports where strength and power are crucial determinants throughout repetitive successive efforts.
"Therefore, the aim of the present study was to manipulate the volumes of stretching and muscle potentiating exercises and examine their combined effects on counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) and straight leg raise range of motion (ROM). Two different stretching durations (short and long) were used in combination with conditioning tuck jumps, commonly used to induce PAP (Masamoto et al., 2003; Till and Cooke, 2009; Tsolakis and Bogdanis, 2012). One of the advantages of using three subgroups of elite level gymnasts (male and female artistic and female rhythmic gymnasts ) is that each group is characterized by different levels of flexibility and CMJ performance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM) and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three groups of elite athletes (10 male, 14 female artistic gymnasts and 10 female rhythmic gymnasts) varying greatly in ROM and CMJ, performed two warm-up routines. One warm-up included short (15 s) static stretching followed by 5 tuck jumps, while the other included long static stretching (30 s) followed by 3x5 tuck jumps. ROM and CMJ were measured before, during and for 12 min after the two warm-up routines. Three-way ANOVA showed large differences between the three groups in baseline ROM and CMJ performance. A type of warm-up x time interaction was found for both ROM (p = 0.031) and CMJ (p = 0.016). However, all athletes, irrespective of group, responded in a similar fashion to the different warm-up protocols for both ROM and CMJ, as indicated from the lack of significant interactions for group (condition x group, time x group or condition x time x group). In the short warm-up protocol, ROM was not affected by stretching, while in the long warm-up protocol ROM increased by 5.9% ± 0.7% (p = 0.001) after stretching. Similarly, CMJ remained unchanged after the short warm-up protocol, but increased by 4.6 ± 0.9% (p = 0.012) 4 min after the long warmup protocol, despite the increased ROM. It is concluded that the initial levels of flexibility and CMJ performance do not alter the responses of elite gymnasts to warm-up protocols differing in stretching and potentiating exercise volumes. Furthermore, 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps result in a relatively large increase in CMJ performance despite an increase in flexibility in these highly-trained athletes.
Journal of sports science & medicine 03/2014; 13(1):105-13. · 1.03 Impact Factor
"Smilios et al.  found that contrast loading with the use of low and moderate loads can cause a short-term increase in CMJ performance. On the other hand, Till and Cooke  carried out a study in which no significant differences were found at 10 and 20 m sprint and vertical jump performance between four different warm up protocols: deadlift (5 repetitions at 5 repetitions maximum), tuck jump (5 repetitions ) and isometric maximal voluntary knee extensions (3 repetitions for 3 s). This leads to the question of whether a greater or lesser external load (i.e., percentage of body weight or percentage of 1RM) might elicit a different response in subsequent power performance . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of two resistance exercises on 25 m freestyle swimming performance. Twenty-eight regional and national male swimmers volunteered and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Resistance Swimming Group (RS): (n=9; 16.2 ± 3.8 yr), Elastic Band Group (EB): (n=9; 15.9 ± 4.0 yr.), and Control Group (C) (n=10; 15.7 ± 2.2 yr). Swimmers completed a 25 m swim trial at baseline. Subsequently, RS performed resisted crawl swimming with 30% of maximum load (1RM) in a power rack for 12 m and 30 seconds later a 25 m maximal swim trial. EB performed 10 seconds of arm freestyle strokes with elastic bands and 30 seconds later a 25 m maximal swim trial. C performed only the second 25 m maximal swim trial. Each group repeated this protocol four times, with two minutes of rest between repetitions. A two-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences in 25 m swimming times between groups for any of the repetitions performed, and there were no significant differences in 25 m swimming times between the repetitions within each group. The results showed that the resistance exercises performed in this study before the 25 m swim trials did not affect swimming times.
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