[Value of continuous glucose monitoring in screening for diabetes in cystic fibrosis].

Service de Pédiatrie Multidisciplinaire, Hôpital Timone-Enfants, 264 Rue Saint-Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France.
Archives de Pédiatrie (Impact Factor: 0.41). 10/2009; 16(12):1540-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the past few years, survival has increased for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Diabetes is an important complication of CF caused by pancreatic insufficiency, which reduces insulin secretion. Because of increased longevity of patients with CF, the prevalence of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) has increased. CFRD is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Several studies have reported a decline in nutritional and pulmonary status 2-4 years before the diagnosis of CFRD. The introduction of insulin treatment can produce clinical improvement in weight and lung function. The oral glucose tolerance test is currently the reference method in screening for CFRD, but the current definition of diabetes based on the 2-h post-load plasma glucose level may not be the most accurate method for early detection of glucose tolerance abnormalities in CF. The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) has been described as a useful tool for early detection of hyperglycemia in the CF patient. We tested the CGMS in CF patients with unexplained alteration of their general status. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the CGMS in this population.
An annual OGTT (following World Health Organization recommendations) was conducted as a screening test to identify CFRD in patients aged over 10 years or patients aged under 10 years with a poorer clinical status. The CGMS was performed in patients with unexplained worsened clinical status and without diabetes in OGTT.
Forty-two patients aged from 8.5 to 19 years were screened using OGTT for CFRD. According to ADA criteria, 23 patients (54.8%) displayed normal glucose tolerance, 14 (33.3%) impaired glucose tolerance, and 5 diabetes (11.9%). Out of 37 nondiabetic, the CGMS was used in 20 patients with unexplained altered general status. The CGMS revealed peaks of glucose values greater than 2 g/L in 16 patients, 9 patients with normal glucose tolerance, and 7 patients with impaired glucose tolerance. The mean CGMS glucose and time of glycemic monitoring above 1.4 g/L increased in patients with peaks greater than 2 g/L compared to patients without peaks (p=0.0016 and p=0.0069 respectively). After analysis of the CGMS, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 11.9 to 50%. Three patients aged less than 10 years with a normal OGTT profile presented glycemic peaks greater than 2 g/L during CGMS.
CGMS revealed more glucose metabolism abnormalities than OGTT in patients with unexplained altered general status.

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