Correlation between memory, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and interictal epileptiform discharges in temporal lobe epilepsy related to mesial temporal sclerosis.
ABSTRACT The aim of the study described here was to examine the relationship between memory function, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) abnormalities, and interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) lateralization in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) related to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis.
We assessed performance on tests of memory function and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 29 right-handed outpatients and 24 controls. IEDs were assessed on 30-minute-awake and 30-minute-sleep EEG samples. Patients had (1)H-MRS at 1.5 T.
There was a negative correlation between IQ (P=0.031) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test results (P=0.022) and epilepsy duration; between(1)H-MRS findings and epilepsy duration (P=0.027); and between N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels and IEDs (P=0.006) in contralateral mesial temporal structures in the left MTS group. (1)H-MRS findings, IEDs, and verbal function were correlated.
These findings suggest that IEDs and NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios reflecting neural metabolism are closely related to verbal memory function in mesial temporal sclerosis. Higher interictal activity on the EEG was associated with a decline in total NAA in contralateral mesial temporal structures.
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ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are both subject to intensive memory research. Memory problems are a core characteristic of both conditions and we wonder if there are analogies which would enrich the two distinct research communities. In this review we focus on memory decline in both conditions, that is, the most feared psychosocial effect. While it is clear that memory decline in MCI is highly likely and would lead to the more severe diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, it is a debate if TLE is a dementing disease or not. As such, like for MCI, one can differentiate progressive from stable TLE subtypes, mainly depending on the age of onset. Neuroimaging techniques such as volumetric analysis of the hippocampus, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortex show evidence of pathological changes in TLE and are predictive for memory decline in MCI. Several studies emphasize that it is necessary to extend the region of interest-even whole-brain characteristics can be predictive for conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Electroencephalography is increasingly subject to computational neuroscience, revealing new approaches for analyzing frequency, spatial synchronization, and information content of the signals. These methods together with event-related designs that assess memory functions are highly promising for understanding the mechanisms of memory decline in both TLE and MCI populations. Finally, there is evidence that the potential of such markers for memory decline is far from being exhausted. Similar structural and neurophysiological characteristics are linked to memory decline in TLE and MCI. We raise the hope that interdisciplinary research and cross-talk between fields such as research on epilepsy and dementia, will shed further light on the dementing characteristics of the pathological basis of MCI and TLE and support the development of new memory enhancing treatment strategies.Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 04/2014; 8:58. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00058
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ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. In this paper, we present a novel synchronized technique based on the fs KLM Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers, in which timing jitter of less than 1 fs was demonstrated within the measurement accuracy. The schematic of the experimental setup consists of prism dispersion controlled KLM Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers. In order to induce a strong nonlinear coupling effect for synchronization, we used two pairs of D-shaped concave mirrors to focus and cross both laser beams inside the Ti:sapphire crystal. With 5 W 532 nm and 9 W 1064 nm pump lasers, stable mode-locking powers of 600 mW and 150 mW were produced from the Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers, respectively.Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2002. CLEO '02. Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is the most common comorbidity in children with epilepsy, but its pathophysiology and predisposing conditions remain unknown. Clinical epilepsy characteristics are not conclusive in determining cognitive outcome. Because many children with epilepsy do not have macrostructural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, the underlying substrate for cognitive impairment may be found at the microstructural or functional level. In the last two decades, new MRI techniques have been developed that have the potential to visualize microstructural or functional abnormalities associated with cognitive impairment. These include volumetric MRI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI). All of these techniques have shed new light on various aspects associated with, or underlying, cognitive impairment, although their use in epilepsy has been limited and focused mostly on adults. Therefore, in this review, the use of all these different MRI techniques to unravel cognitive impairment in epilepsy is discussed both in adults and children with epilepsy. Volumetric MRI and VBM have revealed significant volume losses in the area of the seizure focus as well as in distant areas. DTI adds evidence of loss of integrity of connections from the seizure focus to distant areas as well as between distant areas. MRS and fMRI have shown impaired function both in the area of the seizure focus as well as in distant structures. For this review we have compiled and compared findings from the various techniques to conclude that cognitive impairment in epilepsy results from a network disorder in which the (micro)structures as well as the functionality can be disturbed.Epilepsia 08/2012; 53(10):1690-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03624.x · 4.58 Impact Factor