Late-onset MNGIE without peripheral neuropathy due to incomplete loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial NeuroGastroIntestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and leukoencephalopathy with early onset and severe prognosis. Mutations in the TYMP/ECGF1 gene cause a loss of thymidine phosphorylase catalytic activity, disrupting the homeostasis of intramitochondrial nucleotide pool. We report a woman with a very late onset of MNGIE, lacking peripheral neuropathy. Thymidine phosphorylase activity was markedly reduced in cultured fibroblasts, but only mildly reduced in buffy coat, where the defect is usually detected, and plasma thymidine was mildly increased compared to typical MNGIE patients. TYMP/ECGF1 analysis detected two heterozygous mutations, including a novel missense mutation. These findings indicate that a partial loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity may induce a late-onset and incomplete MNGIE phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive human disease associated with multiple deletions of skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which have been ascribed to a defect in communication between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Examination of 12 MNGIE probands revealed homozygous or compound-heterozygous mutations in the gene specifying thymidine phosphorylase (TP), located on chromosome 22q13.32-qter. TP activity in leukocytes from MNGIE patients was less than 5 percent of controls, indicating that loss-of-function mutations in TP cause the disease. The pathogenic mechanism may be related to aberrant thymidine metabolism, leading to impaired replication or maintenance of mtDNA, or both.Science 02/1999; 283(5402):689-92. · 31.20 Impact Factor
Article: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE): biochemical features and therapeutic approaches.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the last 15 years, important research has expanded our knowledge of the clinical, molecular genetic, and biochemical features of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). The characterization of mitochondrial involvement in this disorder and the seminal determination of its genetic cause, have opened new possibilities for more detailed and deeper studies on the pathomechanisms in this progressive and fatal disease. It has been established that MNGIE is caused by mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP), which lead to absolute or nearly complete loss of its catalytic activity, producing systemic accumulations of its substrates, thymidine (dThd) and deoxyuridine (dUrd). Findings obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the biochemical imbalances specifically impair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, repair, or both leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We have proposed that therapy for MNGIE should be aimed at reducing the concentrations of these toxic nucleosides to normal or nearly normal levels. The first treatment, allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) reported in 2006, produced a nearly full biochemical correction of the dThd and dUrd imbalances in blood. Clinical follow-up of this and other patients receiving alloSCT is necessary to determine whether this and other therapies based on a permanent restoration of TP will be effective treatment for MNGIE.Bioscience Reports 07/2007; 27(1-3):151-63. · 2.38 Impact Factor
Article: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE): clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We studied the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of eight patients with the autosomal recessive mitochondrial syndrome mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). MNGIE is clinically characterized by ophthalmoparesis, peripheral neuropathy, leukoencephalopathy, gastrointestinal symptoms (recurrent nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea) with intestinal dysmotility, and histologically abnormal mitochondria in muscle. Brain MRI scans were consistent with leukodystrophy in seven patients examined. Nerve conduction and EMG studies were compatible with a sensorimotor neuropathy; quantitative EMG of two patients suggested a myogenic process. Muscle mitochondrial enzyme analysis revealed a partial defect of cytochrome c oxidase activity in five patients; three had additional respiratory chain enzyme defects. Two patients had isolated complex I defects, and one had normal respiratory chain function. Southern blot analysis revealed multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA in four of eight patients.Neurology 05/1994; 44(4):721-7. · 8.31 Impact Factor