Field evaluation of three botanical repellents against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Aedes mitchellae.
ABSTRACT Three botanical natural repellents, Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (AI 12% plant-based essential oils), All Sport (AI plant-based essential oils, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, and octisalate), and Geraniol (AI 25% geraniol oil and lemongrass extract) were evaluated at a field site in Elkton, Florida, to determine the protection time provided against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Ae. mitchellae. These three products provided different protection times against biting mosquitoes. Geraniol provided the longest protection time from mosquito bites (4 h), followed by All Sport (1.5 h) and Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (1 h). This study provides the first information about botanical insect repellents against these floodwater mosquito species.
SourceAvailable from: Tanjim Hossain[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Field-collected female Psorophora howardii (Coquillett), Psorophora ciliate (F.), and Psorophora ferox (Humboltd) mosquitoes were tested in laboratory conditions to measure body size, blood engorgement duration, bloodmeal size, fecundity, and egg morphology. Mean bloodmeal size was significantly different among the three species of mosquitoes, whereas there was no difference in blood engorgement duration. Mean body weights and wing lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox. Seven days after bloodmeals, oviposition rates for Ps. howardii, Ps. ciliata, and Ps.ferox were 18.8, 56.2, and 0%, respectively. The mean number of total eggs produced per female for the three species was 59, 81, and 73, respectively. Mean egg lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox, and egg diameters for each of the three species were significantly different from one another. Length per diameter ratios of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly smaller than Ps. ferox. Bloodmeal size was positively related to body weight, but not related to blood engorgement duration, and the total egg number was positively related to bloodmeal size.Journal of Medical Entomology 03/2014; 51(2):382-6. DOI:10.1603/ME13175 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microemulsions (ME) are thermodynamically stable isotropic mixtures of oil, water, and surfactant; they would also be attractive as potential insecticidal products due to the high bioviability of the active ingredient, attributable to the small sizes of the oil drops. A laboratory study was conducted in order to compare the biological effect of oil in water (o/w) geranium essential oil (EO) and geraniol MEs and emulsions, against Culex pipiens pipiens mosquito larvae. The systems were based on three nonionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Brij 35, Tween 80). The MEs showed dispersed phase diameters in the range of 8 to 14 nm and had low PDI values (<0.2). The MEs were analyzed by TEM, indicating that they had nearly spherical morphology. The microemulsified systems based on geranium EO and those of geraniol produced a notable increase of the larvicidal activity when compared with the respectably emulsions, concluding that the biological effect is related with the diameter of the dispersed phase. The smallest drops achieved the highest larvicidal activity, being the aqueous nanoformulations based on geraniol most effective than those of geranium EO. However, geranium microemulsions are preferred due to their residual toxicological profiles. The results indicate that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for the C. pipiens pipiens.Parasitology Research 11/2013; 113(2). DOI:10.1007/s00436-013-3710-y · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Commercial formulations of 3 repellents: OFF® Active (active ingredient [AI] 15% N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide [deet]), OFF® Family Care (AI 5% picaridin), and CVS Pharmacy Fresh Insect Repellent® (AI 10% citronella, 2% lauryl sulfate, and 0.2% potassium sorbate) were evaluated to determine the mean protection time provided against the large floodwater mosquitoes, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. howardii. Each of these products contained different active ingredients and displayed different protection times, but repellency was in accordance with each product's label reapplication times/repellency durations. The CVS Pharmacy Fresh Insect Repellent provided the least protection (2 h and 26 min), followed by OFF Family Care (3 h and 46 min). OFF Active afforded the longest protection (5 h and 41 min), which was significantly higher than the other treatments (P < 0.001).Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 06/2014; 30(2):136-137. DOI:10.2987/13-6368.1 · 0.83 Impact Factor