Three botanical natural repellents, Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (AI 12% plant-based essential oils), All Sport (AI plant-based essential oils, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, and octisalate), and Geraniol (AI 25% geraniol oil and lemongrass extract) were evaluated at a field site in Elkton, Florida, to determine the protection time provided against Psorophora ferox, Aedes atlanticus, and Ae. mitchellae. These three products provided different protection times against biting mosquitoes. Geraniol provided the longest protection time from mosquito bites (4 h), followed by All Sport (1.5 h) and Swamp Buddy Bug Chaser (1 h). This study provides the first information about botanical insect repellents against these floodwater mosquito species.
"However, there is limited published literature on these species regarding body size and its relationship to blood feeding activity and fecundity. Psorophora ferox (Humboltd), another ßoodwater mosquito species, has a medium body size and is commonly associated with the two larger Psorophora species in St. Johns County, FL (Qualls and Xue 2009); information about body size, blood feeding activity, and fecundity is also lacking. In the laboratory, many Psorophora species are competent vectors for St. Louis encephalitis virus (Hammon and Reeves 1943), eastern equine encephalitis virus (Chamberlain et al. 1954), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (Sudia et al. 1975), western equine encephalitis virus (Mitchell et al. 1987), Tensaw virus (Wozniak et al. 2001), and West Nile virus (Chow et al. 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field-collected female Psorophora howardii (Coquillett), Psorophora ciliate (F.), and Psorophora ferox (Humboltd) mosquitoes were tested in laboratory conditions to measure body size, blood engorgement duration, bloodmeal size, fecundity, and egg morphology. Mean bloodmeal size was significantly different among the three species of mosquitoes, whereas there was no difference in blood engorgement duration. Mean body weights and wing lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox. Seven days after bloodmeals, oviposition rates for Ps. howardii, Ps. ciliata, and Ps.ferox were 18.8, 56.2, and 0%, respectively. The mean number of total eggs produced per female for the three species was 59, 81, and 73, respectively. Mean egg lengths of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly greater than Ps.ferox, and egg diameters for each of the three species were significantly different from one another. Length per diameter ratios of Ps. howardii and Ps. ciliata were significantly smaller than Ps. ferox. Bloodmeal size was positively related to body weight, but not related to blood engorgement duration, and the total egg number was positively related to bloodmeal size.
Journal of Medical Entomology 03/2014; 51(2):382-6. DOI:10.1603/ME13175 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geraniol is a commercially important terpene alcohol occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants. It is one of the most important molecules in the flavour and fragrance industries and is a common ingredient in consumer products produced by these industries. In addition to its pleasant odour, geraniol is known to exhibit insecticidal and repellent properties and used as a natural pest control agent exhibiting low toxicity. Geraniol has been suggested to represent a new class of chemoprevention agents for cancer. Other biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and some vascular effects have also been investigated. The effect of geraniol as a penetration enhancer for transdermal drug delivery has also attracted the attention of researchers and formulation scientists. This review aims to coherently discuss some of the most important applications of geraniol and unites the results obtained from several studies reporting the biological properties of this molecule.
South African Journal of Botany 10/2010; 76(4):643-651. DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2010.05.008 · 0.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10% of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions.
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