A validated tool to assess adherence with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) could help physicians and researchers determine whether poor asthma control is due to poor adherence or severe intrinsic asthma.
To assess the performance of the Medication Adherence Report Scale for Asthma (MARS-A), a 10-item, self-reported measure of adherence with ICS.
We interviewed 318 asthmatic adults receiving care at 2 inner-city clinics. Self-reported adherence with ICS was measured by MARS-A at baseline and 1 and 3 months. ICS adherence was measured electronically in 53 patients. Electronic adherence was the percentage of days patients used ICS. Patients with a mean MARS-A score of 4.5 or higher or with electronic adherence of more than 70% were defined as good adherers. We assessed internal validity (Cronbach alpha, test-retest correlations), criterion validity (associations between self-reported adherence and electronic adherence), and construct validity (correlating self-reported adherence with ICS beliefs).
The mean patient age was 47 years; 40% of patients were Hispanic, 40% were black, and 18% were white; 53% had prior asthma hospitalizations; and 70% had prior oral steroid use. Electronic substudy patients were similar to the rest of the cohort in age, sex, race, and asthma severity. MARS-A had good interitem correlation in English and Spanish (Cronbach alpha = 0.85 and 0.86, respectively) and good test-retest reliability (r = 0.65, P < .001). According to electronic measurements, patients used ICS 52% of days. Continuous MARS-A scores correlated with continuous electronic adherence (r = 0.42, P<.001), and dichotomized high self-reported adherence predicted high electronic adherence (odds ratio, 10.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-44.5; P < .001). Construct validity was good, with self-reported adherence higher in those saying daily ICS use was important and ICS were controller medications (P = .04).
MARS-A demonstrated good psychometric performance as a self-reported measure of adherence with ICS among English- and Spanish-speaking, low-income, minority patients with asthma.
"Participants’ reporting of adherence will be assessed using the Medicines Adherence Report Scale (MARS)
[16,17], a valid and reliable scale that has been previously used to assess adherence in renal transplant recipients
[18,19]. Self-report measures have the advantage of being inexpensive and non-intrusive. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal transplantation is the best treatment for kidney failure, in terms of length and quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However, most transplants fail after 10 to 12 years, consigning patients back onto dialysis. Damage by the immune system accounts for approximately 50% of failing transplants and it is possible to identify patients at risk by screening for the presence of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens. However, it is not clear how best to treat patients with antibodies. This trial will test a combined screening and treatment protocol in renal transplant recipients.Methods/design: Recipients >1 year post-transplantation, aged 18 to 70 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min will be randomly allocated to blinded or unblinded screening arms, before being screened for the presence of antibodies. In the unblinded arm, test results will be revealed. Those with antibodies will have biomarker-led care, consisting of a change in their anti-rejection drugs to prednisone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In the blinded arm, screening results will be double blinded and all recruits will remain on current therapy (standard care). In both arms, those without antibodies will be retested every 8 months for 3 years. The primary outcome is the 3-year kidney failure rate for the antibody-positive recruits, as measured by initiation of long-term dialysis or re-transplantation, predicted to be approximately 20% in the standard care group but <10% in biomarker-led care. The secondary outcomes include the rate of transplant dysfunction, incidence of infection, cancer and diabetes mellitus, an analysis of adherence with medication and a health economic analysis of the combined screening and treatment protocol. Blood samples will be collected and stored every 4 months and will form the basis of separately funded studies to identify new biomarkers associated with the outcomes.
We have evidence that the biomarker-led care regime will be effective at preventing graft dysfunction and expect this to feed through to graft survival. This trial will confirm the benefit of routine screening and lead to a greater understanding of how to keep kidney transplants working longer.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46157828.
"For the cross-sectional study [BvdB] , 228 consecutive RA patients on DMARD therapy treated in the St. Maartenskliniek (a clinic specialized in rheumatology, rehabilitation and orthopedic surgery) completed questionnaires to examine the prevalence and possible determinants of non-adherence, including demographics , coping, beliefs about medication, satisfaction about medicine information, and physical functioning. Non-adherence was measured with the Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR ) and the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS ). To gain in-depth insight into possible determinants of nonadherence , two patient focus groups led by two psychologists [WvL/BvdM] were organized to discuss necessity and concern beliefs about medication, the need for education, experienced social support, and practical barriers as perceived by RA patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the systematic development and content of a short intervention to improve medication adherence to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in non-adherent patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
The intervention mapping (IM) framework was used to develop the intervention. The following IM steps were conducted: (1) a needs assessment; (2) formulation of specific intervention objectives; (3) inventory of methods and techniques needed to design the intervention and (4) production and piloting of the intervention.
The intervention (consisting of two group sessions led by a pharmacist, a homework assignment, and a follow-up call) aims to improve the balance between necessity and concern beliefs about medication, and to resolve practical barriers in medication taking. The central communication method used is motivational interviewing.
By applying the IM framework, we were able to create a feasible, time-efficient and promising intervention to improve medication adherence in non-adherent RA patients. Intervention effects are currently being assessed in a randomized controlled trial.
This paper could serve as a guideline for other health care professionals when developing similar interventions. If the RCT demonstrates sufficient effectiveness of this intervention in reducing medication non-adherence in RA patients, the intervention could be embedded in clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbal remedies, are widely used by patients with chronic diseases, such as asthma. However, it is unclear whether use of the herbal remedies is associated with decreased adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), a key component of asthma management.
To examine the association among use of herbal remedies, adherence to prescribed ICSs, and medication and disease beliefs.
We surveyed 326 adults with persistent asthma who received care at 2 inner-city outpatient clinics. Patients were asked about CAM use (teas, herbs, and rubs) for the treatment of asthma in the prior 6 months. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale, a validated self-report measure. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationship among herbal remedy use, adherence to ICSs, and medication and disease beliefs.
Overall, 25.4% (95% confidence interval, 20%-30%) of patients reported herbal remedy use. Univariate analyses showed that herbal remedy use was associated with decreased ICS adherence and increased asthma morbidity. In multivariable analysis, herbal remedy use was associated with lower ICS adherence (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8) after adjusting for confounders. Herbal remedy users were also more likely to worry about the adverse effects of ICSs (P = .01).
The use of herbal remedies was associated with lower adherence to ICSs and worse outcomes among inner-city asthmatic patients. Medication beliefs, such as worry about ICS adverse effects, may in part mediate this relationship. Physicians should routinely ask patients with asthma about CAM use, especially those whose asthma is poorly controlled.
Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 02/2010; 104(2):132-8. DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2009.11.024 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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