Sleep actigraphy evidence of improved sleep after treatment of allergic rhinitis.
ABSTRACT Children with allergic rhinitis (AR) are reported to have disturbed sleep and daytime fatigue due to nasal obstruction.
To evaluate sleep impairment in children with AR using actigraphic evaluation.
Fourteen children aged 7 to 16 years with grass pollen-sensitized seasonal AR were enrolled. They completed the Total 4-Symptom Score (T4SS) scoring system for AR symptom score and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire for sleep quality, and they underwent actigraphy for 3 days in the pretreatment period. After topical corticosteroid and antihistaminic treatment for 8 weeks, actigraphy, the T4SS, and the PSQI were repeated. Fourteen healthy children aged 8 to 16 years underwent actigraphy and completed the PSQI questionnaire as controls.
There were no significant age or sex differences between the AR and control groups. Pretreatment PSQI and actigraphy scores were worse in the AR group vs the control group. After treatment, sleep quality improved, and there were no differences in actigraphy and PSQI scores between the 2 groups. Before treatment, the T4SS was significantly correlated with the sleep efficiency, daytime napping episodes, and total nap duration variables of actigraphy (r = -0.53, P = .004; r = 0.43, P = .02; and r = 0.39, P = .04, respectively). The T4SS was correlated with the total PSQI score (r = 0.67, P < .001).
Sleep can be compromised in children with AR. There is a significant correlation of clinical symptom score with the actigraphic and PSQI variables. Therefore, actigraphy may be used as an objective tool to evaluate sleep disturbance in children with AR.
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ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and carries significant morbidity as well as physical and psychosocial consequences. Therapy aims to alleviate clinical symptoms, prevent complications and improve psychosocial consequences. Leukotrienes which are amongst the main mediators in pathogenesis of AR have chemotactic properties and lead to increased vascular permeability. Thus, leukotriene antagonism may be an effective therapeutic option in treatment of allergic diseases, specifically AR. Montelukast which is a leukotriene receptor type I inhibitor has variable efficacy in children with AR and the guidelines recommend its use in children with seasonal AR aged six years and above. Although its efficacy is inferior to anti-histamines and intranasal corticosteroids, combination treatment may warrant clinical efficacy. Therefore, montelukast may be considered to be a well-tolerated therapeutic option for children with AR with minor side effects though long term results need to be assessed. In conclusion, larger scale research enrolling pediatric cases with seasonal and persistent AR are required before concise recommendations about montelukast use in pediatric AR can be made.International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 10/2013; 77(12). DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.10.006 · 1.32 Impact Factor
Article: Allergic rhinitis in children[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis affects up to 40% of children but is commonly undiagnosed. Careful assessment of nasal symptoms allows for the most appropriate therapeutic options to be chosen. Allergen avoidance is often difficult in practice. Antihistamines are of limited benefit in allergic rhinitis caused by house dust mite and other perennial allergens, where symptoms, predominantly nasal obstruction, are not histamine mediated. In contrast, symptoms triggered by pollen, such as nasal itch, rhinorrhoea and sneezing, are relieved by antihistamines. Intranasal steroids are the treatment of choice for persistent moderate-severe allergic rhinitis and are more effective than antihistamines for relief of nasal obstruction. Failure to respond to intranasal medications is often caused by poor compliance or inefficient use of nasal sprays. Immunotherapy may be a useful, if expensive, option, particularly where symptoms are because of a specific pollen. The benefits of immunotherapy in house dust mite-induced rhinitis and asthma remain controversial.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 06/2010; 48(4):302-10. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2010.01779.x · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is characterized by a helper T (Th)2 cell-mediated immune response at the target site. There is a relative Th1 and/or regulatory T (Treg) cell insufficiency in patients with SAR. It has been demonstrated that there is a change in the balance between these cells after allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is a curative treatment modality for this disease. However, there are few studies that evaluate the number and function of these cells in the inflammatory area after SIT treatment. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Th1, Th2 and Treg cells in nasal biopsies and lavage fluid (NLF) specimens from patients with SAR, before and after SIT. Twenty-four, symptomatic SAR patients sensitized to Olea europeae, were enrolled in the study prior to treatment. Fifteen, non-allergic subjects with nasal septum deviation, who needed surgical treatment, served as the control group. NLF and inferior turbinate biopsies were obtained from both groups during the pollen season. Conventional, subcutaneous SIT with Olea europeae extract was initiated in patients with SAR. One year after the first biopsy, biopsies and NLF specimens were again obtained for reevaluation. All biopsies were evaluated for Th1, Th2 and Treg cell counts by means of their transcription factors (T-bet, GATA-3 and FoxP3) using an immunohistochemical analysis method. Additionally, all NLF specimens were evaluated for the functions of these cells, by means of their specific cytokines, using an ELISA method. When the basal status of those patients with SAR was evaluated based on transcription factors, prior to treatment, Th1 and Treg cells were found to be fewer than in non-allergic controls (p=0.001 for both T-bet and FoxP3). It was demonstrated that numbers of GATA-3-carrying cells, which are a marker for Th2, were not significantly different between the groups (p=0.276), but evaluation of the Th1/Th2 ratio revealed a relative Th2 dominance in patients with SAR prior to treatment. When evaluated on the basis of cytokine levels, it was observed that Th1-originated IFN-γ was lower in patients with SAR compared to the control group, both before and after treatment (p=0.012 for both comparisons), Th2-originated IL-4 levels were not significantly different between the groups either before or after treatment (p=0.649, p=0.855; respectively). Th2- and Treg cell-originated IL-10 levels were higher in patients with SAR before treatment (p=0.033), but this difference was not statistically signifant following treatment compared with controls (p=0.174). Treg cell-originated TGF-β levels were slightly lower in patients with SAR compared to the controls, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.178, p=0.296; respectively). None of the above mentioned cytokine levels changed significantly as a result of SIT. The results of our study indicate that although clinical findings improve after one year of SIT, this duration may not be sufficient to detect changes in cytokine patterns and transcription factors. Further studies that evaluate outcome over a longer duration of treatment would provide valuable information.03/2011; 22(1):15-23. DOI:10.1684/ecn.2011.0277