Obesity and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors in school children in Itapetininga, Brazil.
ABSTRACT Paucity of data on childhood obesity and cardiovascular risk in Brazil.
To determine the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and their correlations in a sample of school children in Itapetininga, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Cross-sectional study with systematic collection of anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference, BMI and blood pressure levels) and determination of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, uric acid, and apolipoproteins A and B in a random sample representative of school children from the public education system in Itapetininga, State of Sao Paulo. For data analysis, we used population parameters from the NCHS curves (2000), blood pressure categories from NHBPEP (2004), and the serum cholesterol levels proposed by the AHA for children and adolescents (2003).
A total of 494 children and adolescents participated in the study. Of these, 11.7% had HBP, 51% increased total cholesterol, 40.5% increased LDL-cholesterol, 8.5% increased triglycerides, and 6.1% low HDL-cholesterol levels. Mean (+/- standard deviation) TC, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were 172.1(27.9), 48.1(10.0), 105.7(23.1) and 90.9(43.8), respectively. Obesity and overweight were detected in 12.8% and 9.7% of the sample, respectively. Individuals of the obese group had a greater chance of presenting with dyslipidemia and hypertension in comparison with those of the other groups.
This study supports the hypothesis of different prevalences of excess weight among school children from the public education system of the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil, with higher rates in the latter. Additionally, it demonstrates an association of obesity with dyslipidemia and hypertension in that group. In light of the paucity of Brazilian data on this issue, our study provides important data for further comparisons.