Building ubiquitin chains: E2 enzymes at work.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 37.16). 11/2009; 10(11):755-64. DOI: 10.1038/nrm2780
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The modification of proteins with ubiquitin chains can change their localization, activity and/or stability. Although ubiquitylation requires the concerted action of ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s), it is the E2s that have recently emerged as key mediators of chain assembly. These enzymes are able to govern the switch from ubiquitin chain initiation to elongation, regulate the processivity of chain formation and establish the topology of assembled chains, thereby determining the consequences of ubiquitylation for the modified proteins.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein ubiquitination regulates many cellular processes via attachment of structurally and functionally distinct ubiquitin (Ub) chains. Several atypical chain types have remained poorly characterized because the enzymes mediating their assembly and receptors with specific binding properties have been elusive. We found that the human HECT E3 ligases UBE3C and AREL1 assemble K48/K29- and K11/K33-linked Ub chains, respectively, and can be used in combination with DUBs to generate K29- and K33-linked chains for biochemical and structural analyses. Solution studies indicate that both chains adopt open and dynamic conformations. We further show that the N-terminal Npl4-like zinc finger (NZF1) domain of the K29/K33-specific deubiquitinase TRABID specifically binds K29/K33-linked diUb, and a crystal structure of this complex explains TRABID specificity and suggests a model for chain binding by TRABID. Our work uncovers linkage-specific components in the Ub system for atypical K29- and K33-linked Ub chains, providing tools to further understand these unstudied posttranslational modifications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a critical factor in unlimited cell proliferation and immortalization, with numerous studies demonstrating that high expression of hTERT is a poor prognostic factor in various types of cancer. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 (UBE2D3) is a member of the E2 family, and participates in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway to regulate basic cellular activities, such as cell cycle control, the DNA damage response, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Our previous study initially determined that downregulation of UBE2D3 expression increases hTERT expression and cell proliferation, however, the association between the expression of these two proteins and their functions in cancer tissues remains unknown. Therefore, the protein expression levels of hTERT and UBE2D3 were evaluated in 150 esophageal cancer and 30 adjacent healthy tissue samples by performing immunohistochemical analysis. Concurrently, the clinicopathological data of the enrolled patients were obtained to allow correlation analysis. It was identified that the expression of hTERT in the esophageal cancer tissues was significantly higher compared with that of the adjacent tissues (P=0.015), however, the expression of UBE2D3 was significantly lower in esophageal cancer tissues than the adjacent tissues (P=0.001). Additionally, the study demonstrated that hTERT was significantly upregulated in poorly-differentiated, advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage cancer tissues (P<0.05 for all), however, UBE2D3 expression was downregulated in poorly-differentiated, lymph node invaded cancer tissues and recurrent cases. It was also identified that traditional factors, including tumor location, T stage, lymph node status, TNM stage, and molecular factors of hTERT and UBE2D3, were significantly associated with overall survival time (P<0.05 for all). Furthermore, UBE2D3, lymph node status and tumor location were independent prognostic factors for esophageal cancer in multivariate analysis. Most notably, hTERT and UBE2D3 expression were negatively correlated with each other. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that hTERT and UBE2D3 proteins appear to be involved in the development of esophageal cancer, that UBE2D3 may a positive prognostic factor for esophageal cancer, and that UBE2D3 and hTERT expression levels are inversely correlated.
    Oncology letters 04/2015; 9(4):1567-1574. DOI:10.3892/ol.2015.2926 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A single risk haplotype across UBE2L3 is strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and many other autoimmune diseases. UBE2L3 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with specificity for RING-in-between-RING E3 ligases, including HOIL-1 and HOIP, components of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which has a pivotal role in inflammation, through crucial regulation of NF-κB. We aimed to determine whether UBE2L3 regulates LUBAC-mediated activation of NF-κB, and determine the effect of UBE2L3 genotype on NF-κB activation and B-cell differentiation.
    The Lancet 02/2015; 385. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60324-5 · 39.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014