The processing of human rhomboid intramembrane serine protease RHBDL2 is required for its proteolytic activity.
ABSTRACT RHBDL2, a human homolog of the rhomboids, belongs to a unique class of serine intramembrane proteases; little is known about its function and regulation. Here, we show that RHBDL2 is produced as a proenzyme and that the processing of RHBDL2 is required for its cellular protease activity. The processing of RHBDL2 was shown by both Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. We have demonstrated that a highly conserved Arg residue on loop 1 of RHBDL2 plays a critical role in the activation of the proenzyme. The activation of RHBDL2 is catalyzed by a protease that is sensitive to a class of sulfonamide compounds. Furthermore, endogenous RHBDL2 exists as the processed form and treatment of cells with a sulfonamide inhibitor led to an accumulation of the full length of RHBDL2. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that RHBDL2 activity is regulated by proenzyme activation, revealed a role for the conserved WR residues in loop 1 in RHBDL2 activity, and provided critical insights into the regulation and function of this human rhomboid protease.
- SourceAvailable from: Tsung-Lin Cheng[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anoikis resistance allows metastatic tumor cells to survive in a homeless environment. Activation of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is one of the key mechanisms for metastatic tumor cells to resist anoikis, yet the regulation mechanisms of homeless-triggered EGFR activation in metastatic tumor cells remain unclear. Rhomboid-like-2 (RHBDL2), an evolutionally conserved intramembrane serine protease, can cleave the EGF ligand and thus trigger EGFR activation. Herein, we demonstrated that RHBDL2 overexpression in human epithelial cells resulted in promotion of cell proliferation, reduction of cell adhesion, and suppression of anoikis. During long-term suspension cultures, increased RHBDL2 was only detected in aggressive tumor cell lines. Treatment with the rhomboid protease inhibitor or RHBDL2 shRNA increased cleaved caspase 3, a marker of apoptosis. Finally, inhibition of EGFR activation increased the cleaved caspase 3 and attenuated the detachment-induced focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the first time that RHBDL2 is a critical molecule in anoikis resistance of malignant epithelial cells, possibly through the EGFR-mediated signaling. Our study demonstrates RHBDL2 as a new therapeutic target for cancer metastasis.TheScientificWorldJournal. 01/2014; 2014:902987.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is a complex trait with high heritability and is associated with several major hormonal-related diseases. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS), conducted exclusively among women of European ancestry, have discovered dozens of genetic loci influencing ANM. No study has been conducted to evaluate whether these findings can be generalized to Chinese women. We evaluated the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 GWAS-identified genetic susceptibility loci for ANM among 3,533 Chinese women who had natural menopause. We also investigated 3 additional SNPs which were in LD with the index SNP in European-ancestry but not in Asian-ancestry populations. Two genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated to summarize SNPs across multiple loci one for all SNPs tested (GRSall), and one for SNPs which showed association in our study (GRSsel). All 22 SNPs showed the same association direction as previously reported. Eight SNPs were nominally statistically significant with P≤0.05: rs4246511 (RHBDL2), rs12461110 (NLRP11), rs2307449 (POLG), rs12611091 (BRSK1), rs1172822 (BRSK1), rs365132 (UIMC1), rs2720044 (ASH2L), and rs7246479 (TMEM150B). Especially, SNPs rs4246511, rs365132, rs1172822, and rs7246479 remained significant even after Bonferroni correction. Significant associations were observed for GRS. Women in the highest quartile began menopause 0.7 years (P = 3.24×10(-9)) and 0.9 years (P = 4.61×10(-11)) later than those in the lowest quartile for GRSsel and GRSall, respectively. Among the 22 investigated SNPs, eight showed associations with ANM (P<0.05) in our Chinese population. Results from this study extend some recent GWAS findings to the Asian-ancestry population and may guide future efforts to identify genetic determination of menopause.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e58766. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: From proteases that cleave peptide bonds in the plane of the membrane, rhomboids have evolved into a heterogeneous superfamily with a wide range of different mechanistic properties. In mammals 14 family members have been annotated based on a shared conserved membrane-integral rhomboid core domain, including intramembrane serine proteases and diverse proteolytically inactive homologues. While the function of rhomboid proteases is the proteolytic release of membrane-tethered factors, rhomboid pseudoproteases including iRhoms and derlins interact with their clients without cleaving them. It has become evident that specific recognition of membrane protein substrates and clients by the rhomboid fold reflects a spectrum of cellular functions ranging from growth factor activation, trafficking control to membrane protein degradation. This review summarizes recent progress on rhomboid family proteins in the mammalian secretory pathway and raises the question whether they can be seen as new drug targets for inflammatory diseases and cancer.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor