Article

Insulin causes hyperthermia by direct inhibition of warm-sensitive neurons.

The Harold L. Dorris Neurological Research Institute, Department of Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 7.9). 10/2009; 59(1):43-50. DOI: 10.2337/db09-1128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Temperature and nutrient homeostasis are two interdependent components of energy balance regulated by distinct sets of hypothalamic neurons. The objective is to examine the role of the metabolic signal insulin in the control of core body temperature (CBT).
The effect of preoptic area administration of insulin on CBT in mice was measured by radiotelemetry and respiratory exchange ratio. In vivo 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake into brown adipose tissue (BAT) was measured in rats after insulin treatment by positron emission tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography imaging. Insulin receptor-positive neurons were identified by retrograde tracing from the raphe pallidus. Insulin was locally applied on hypothalamic slices to determine the direct effects of insulin on intrinsically warm-sensitive neurons by inducing hyperpolarization and reducing firing rates.
Injection of insulin into the preoptic area of the hypothalamus induced a specific and dose-dependent elevation of CBT mediated by stimulation of BAT thermogenesis as shown by imaging and respiratory ratio measurements. Retrograde tracing indicates that insulin receptor-expressing warm-sensitive neurons activate BAT through projection via the raphe pallidus. Insulin applied on hypothalamic slices acted directly on intrinsically warm-sensitive neurons by inducing hyperpolarization and reducing firing rates. The hyperthermic effects of insulin were blocked by pretreatment with antibodies to insulin or with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor.
Our findings demonstrate that insulin can directly modulate hypothalamic neurons that regulate thermogenesis and CBT and indicate that insulin plays an important role in coupling metabolism and thermoregulation at the level of anterior hypothalamus.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
154 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is the specific, neurally regulated, metabolic function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and contributes to the maintenance of body temperature during cold exposure and to the elevated core temperature during several behavioral states, including wakefulness, the acute phase response (fever), and stress. BAT energy expenditure requires metabolic fuel availability and contributes to energy balance. This review summarizes the functional organization and neurochemical influences within the CNS networks governing the level of BAT sympathetic nerve activity to produce the thermoregulatory and metabolically driven alterations in BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure that contribute to overall energy homeostasis.
    Cell metabolism 03/2014; · 17.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE). Successful long-term weight loss is difficult to achieve with current strategies for the correction of this caloric imbalance. Non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a possible therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In recent years, more knowledge about the function and stimulation of bat has been obtained. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is currently seen as the main effector for brown fat function. Also, interplay between the thyroid axis and SNS plays an important role in BAT thermogenesis. Almost daily new pathways for the induction of BAT thermogenesis and 'browning' of white adipose tissue (WAT) are identified. Especially the activation of BAT via endogenous pathways has received strong scientific attention. Here we will discuss the relevance of several pathways in activating BAT and their implications for the treatment of obesity. In this review we will focus on the discussion of the most promising endocrine and paracrine pathways to stimulate BAT, by factors and pathways that naturally occur in the human body.
    Annals of Medicine 02/2014; · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a lysosomal catabolic process by which cells degrade or recycle their contents to maintain cellular homeostasis, adapt to stress, and respond to disease. Impairment of autophagy in endothelial cells studied under static conditions results in oxidant stress and impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. We tested the hypothesis that vascular autophagy is also important for induction of NO production caused by exposure of endothelial cells to shear stress (i.e., 3 h × ≈20 dyn/cm(2)). Atg3 is a requisite autophagy pathway mediator. Control cells treated with non-targeting control siRNA showed increased autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, and NO production upon exposure to shear stress (p < 0.05 for all). In contrast, cells with >85% knockdown of Atg3 protein expression (via Atg3 siRNA) exhibited a profound impairment of eNOS phosphorylation, and were incapable of increasing NO in response to shear stress. Moreover, ROS accumulation and inflammatory cytokine production (MCP-1 and IL-8) were exaggerated (all p < 0.05) in response to shear stress. These findings reveal that autophagy not only plays a critical role in maintaining NO bioavailability, but may also be a key regulator of oxidant-antioxidant balance and inflammatory-anti-inflammatory balance that ultimately regulate endothelial cell responses to shear stress.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 06/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
38 Downloads
Available from
May 17, 2014