A Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Enriched Beef Diet Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Mice in Part through PPAR -Mediated Suppression of Toll-Like Receptor 4

UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 10/2009; 139(12):2351-7. DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.113035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a PUFA found in beef and dairy products that has immunoregulatory properties. The level of CLA in beef can be enhanced by feeding cattle fresh grass rather than concentrates. This study determined the effect of feeding a high-CLA beef diet on inflammation in an in vivo model of septic shock. Mice were fed a high-CLA beef (4.3% total fatty acid composition) or low-CLA beef diet (0.84% total fatty acid composition) for 6 wk. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 microg) or sterile PBS was injected i.v. and serum was harvested 6 h after injection. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12p70, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly reduced in response to the LPS challenge in the high-CLA beef diet group. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from the high-CLA beef diet group had significantly less IL-12 and more IL-10 in response to ex vivo LPS stimulation. Furthermore, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 protein and mRNA expression on BMDC was significantly attenuated in the high-CLA compared with the low-CLA beef diet group. Complimentary in vitro experiments to determine the specificity of the effect showed that synthetic cis9, trans11-CLA suppressed surface expression of CD14 and TLR4 on BMDC. Treatment with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed TLR4 expression in immature BMDC. The results of this study demonstrate that feeding a diet enriched in high-beef CLA exerts profound antiinflammatory effects in vivo within the context of LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, downregulation of BMDC TLR4 is mediated through induction of PPARgamma.

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Available from: Helen Roche, Apr 20, 2015
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    • "None the less given the increased circulating cytokine concentrations in UNS offspring we sought to determine potential cellular origins of this pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of dietary intervention on the immunophenotype of BMM and dendritic cells [22]. Given their relative plasticity we speculated that these progenitor cells may be altered by maternal UN and may influence programming events leading to obesity and metabolic dysfunction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal undernutrition (UN) is associated with the development of obesity and metabolic complications in adult offspring. While the role of inflammation in obesity and related comorbidities has been well established, there is little evidence regarding the effects of maternal UN-induced programming on immune function in male adult offspring. This study examines the effects growth hormone (GH), which is known to induce anti-inflammatory effects, on maternal UN-induced bone marrow macrophage (BMM) function in adult male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to chow (C) or UN (50% ad libitum; UN) diet throughout gestation. Male C and UN pups received saline (CS/UNS) or GH (2.5 µg/g/d; CGH/UNGH) from day 3-21. Bone marrow hematopoietic cells were differentiated to a macrophage phenotype in the presence of M-CSF (50 ng/ml). Differentiated bone marrow macrophages (BMM) were stimulated with LPS (100 ng/ml) for 6 h. UNS-derived BMM had significantly increased secretion and expression of IL-1β and IL-6 following LPS stimulation. This was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1R1, IL-6R and TLR4. Pre-weaning GH treatment reversed this pro-inflammatory phenotype. Furthermore UNGH displayed increased expression of markers of alternative (M2) macrophage activation, mannose receptor and PPARγ. This study demonstrates that fetal UN exposure primes hematopoietic immune cells to a more potent pro-inflammatory phenotype with heightened cytokine secretion and receptor expression. Furthermore these cells are pre-disposed to pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype which has wide-reaching and important effects in terms of obesity and metabolic disease.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68262. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068262 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This data reveals a novel mechanism which explains how c9,t11-CLA may exert its anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, research has focussed on downstream signalling components [8] [53] and suggested these as key targets through which PUFA exert their effects. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism through which c9,t11-CLA exerts its effects at the membrane. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can modulate the immune response, however the mechanism by which they exert this effect remains unclear. Previous studies have clearly demonstrated that the cis-9, trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), found predominantly in beef and dairy products, can modulate the response of immune cells to the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aimed to investigate further the mechanism by which these effects are mediated. Treatment of macrophages with c9,t11-CLA significantly decreased CD14 expression and partially blocked its association with lipid rafts following stimulation with LPS. Furthermore the c9,t11-CLA isomer inhibited both nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and IRF3 activation following TLR4 ligation while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) only suppressed NF-κB activation. Given that the ability of LPS to activate IRF3 downstream of TLR4 depends on internalisation of the TLR4 complex and involves CD14, we examined TLR4 endocytosis. Indeed the internalisation of TLR4 to early endosomes following activation with LPS was markedly inhibited in c9,t11-CLA treated cells. These effects were not seen with the n-3 fatty acid, EPA, which was used as a comparison. Our data demonstrates that c9,t11-CLA inhibits IRF3 activation via its effects on CD14 expression and localisation. This results in a decrease in the endocytosis of TLR4 which is necessary for IRF3 activation, revealing a novel mechanism by which this PUFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effects.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 08/2012; 24(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.06.010 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    • "Secondly, environmental factors including the dietary factor and microbia activate the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which then activate NF-κB and cause the expression of pro-inflammatory genes consequently [23]. In the inflammation regulation networks, activation of PPARγ could suppress the activation of NFκB and TLRs [24], [25], therefore inhibit the cascades of inflammation. Decreased PPARγ expression in epithelial cells was also found in UC patients in one study [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor, has been implicated playing a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, previous studies evaluating the association between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and IBD are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala mutation was associated with the presence of IBD. Electronic databases were searched for case-control studies evaluating the association between the Pro12Ala mutation and the presence of IBD. Effects were summarized with the methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 7 studies including 1002 ulcerative colitis (UC) cases, 1090 Crohǹs disease (CD) cases and 1983 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, no significant association of this polymorphism with UC or CD was found. In the subgroup analyses in different populations, AlaAla genotype seemed to protect the European Caucasian population against the development of CD (Pro vs Ala: OR = 1.135, 95%CI = 0.951-1.354, P = 0.162, Bon = 1.000; ProPro vs ProAla: OR = 1.042, 95%CI = 0.852-1.273, P = 0.690, Bon = 1.000; ProPro vs AlaAla: OR = 2.379, 95%CI = 1.110-5.100, P = 0.026, Bon = 0.156; ProAla vs AlaAla: OR = 2.315, 95%CI = 1.064-5.037, P = 0.034, Bon = 0.204; Pro homozygotes vs Ala positives: OR = 1.094, 95%CI = 0.899-1.330, P = 0.371, Bon = 1.000; Pro positives vs Ala homozygotes: OR = 2.360, 95%CI = 1.103-5.053, P = 0.027, Bon = 0.162; heterozygotes vs all homozygotes: OR = 0.976, 95%CI = 0.799-1.192, P = 0.809, Bon = 1.000). There was no significant association of this polymorphism with UC or CD in the East Asian population and the Turkish population. AlaAla genotype may be a protective factor in the European Caucasian population against the development of CD in a recessive way.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30551. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0030551 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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