Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis: A systematic review

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The University of Sydney, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney 2050, Australia.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 3.99). 10/2009; 139(6):1519-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.08.037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present systematic review objectively assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve implantation for patients at high surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis.
Electronic searches were performed in 6 databases from January 2000 to March 2009. The end points included feasibility, safety, efficacy, and durability. Clinical effectiveness was synthesized through a narrative review with full tabulation of results of all included studies.
The current evidence on transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis is limited to short-term observational studies. The overall procedural success rates ranged from 74% to 100%. The incidence of major adverse events included 30-day mortality (0%-25%), major ventricular tachyarrhythmia (0%-4%), myocardial infarction (0%-15%), cardiac tamponade (2%-10%), stroke (0%-10%), conversion to surgery (0%-8%), moderate to major paravalvular leak (4%-35%), vascular complication (8%-17%), valve-in-valve procedure (2%-12%), and aortic dissection/perforation (0%-4%). The overall 30-day major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events ranged from 3% to 35%. The mean aortic valve area ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 cm(2) before and 1.3 to 2.0 cm(2) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The mean pressure gradient ranged from 34 to 58 mm Hg before and 3 to 12 mm Hg after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. There was no significant deterioration in echocardiography measurements during the assessment period. Death rate at 6 months postprocedure ranged from 18% to 48%. No studies had adequate follow-up to reliably evaluate long-term outcomes.
The procedure has a potential for serious complications. Although short-term efficacy based on echocardiography measurements is good, there is little evidence on long-term outcomes. The use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation should be considered only within the boundaries of clinical trials.

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Available from: Michael P Vallely, Jul 16, 2015
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    • "Valve misplacement, eccentric local plaque and insufficient oversizing are the principal reasons for this complication [9]. Aortic dissection or perforation is reported between 0% and 4% [7]. Partial or complete coronary occlusion was reported in 0.6% of T-AVI cases in the SOURCE registry [3] (Fig. 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (T-AVI) has shown good results in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Throughout the whole process of T-AVI, different imaging modalities are indispensable. Preoperatively, multislice computed tomography, angiography and transesophageal echo (TEE) are utilized for patient selection, valve selection, approach selection and the planning of implant placement. Intraoperatively, angiography and TEE are used for controlling placement of the guidewire and valve positioning. Quality control and follow-up require TEE imaging and can require additional CT or angiography studies. In the first half of this paper, we discuss the applicability of different imaging modalities for T-AVI in the light of the current best practice. In the second half of this paper, we present an overview on research projects in medical engineering which aim at development of image-based methods for increasing patient safety during T-AVI. Template-based implantation planning, as it is applied in dental, orthopedic and other surgical disciplines, is proposed as an aid during implant selection in order to help reduce the incidence of complications such as atrioventricular node block and paravalvular leaks. Current research tries to apply state-of-the-art engineering techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics to optimize valve selection and positioning. For intraoperative assistance during valve positioning, real-time image processing methods are proposed to track target landmarks and the stented valve.
    04/2011; 2011(1). DOI:10.5339/ahcsps.2011.3
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