The antinociceptive effect and adverse drug reactions of oxycodone in human experimental pain in relation to genetic variations in the OPRM1 and ABCB1 genes.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to search for a possible association between the variant allele of the single nucleotide polymorphisms A118G in the OPRM1 gene and C3435T and G2677T/A in the ABCB1 gene and altered antinociceptive effect and adverse drug reactions of oxycodone. Thirty-three healthy subjects exposed to experimental pain including electrical stimulation and the cold pressor test were included. A118G: We found that the variant G allele was associated with reduced antinociceptive effect as measured by pain tolerance thresholds to single electrical nerve stimulation (8% increase vs. 25% for the wild-type carriers, P = 0.007). C3435T: The carriers of the variant T allele generally had less adverse drug reactions on oxycodone than the carriers of the wild-type genotype. G2677T/A: The carriers of the variant T allele had a better antinociceptive effect of oxycodone than the carriers of the wild-type genotype in the cold pressor test (25% reduction vs. 15%, P = 0.015 in the discomfort rating and 25% reduction vs. 12%, P = 0.007 in the pain time AUC) and less adverse drug reactions. The combined wild-type genotype 3435CC-2677GG was associated with less antinociceptive effect of oxycodone in the discomfort rating of the cold pressor test (13% reduction vs. 23%, P = 0.019) and more severe adverse drug reactions than the carriers of the variant alleles. We found a moderate association between less antinociceptive effect of oxycodone and the variant allele of A118G. There was strong association between less adverse drug reactions of oxycodone and the variant alleles of C3435T and G2677T/A.
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ABSTRACT: The P2X7 receptor is a member of the P2X family of adenosine 5[prime]-triphosphate-gated cation channels. Several recent studies have demonstrated that this receptor is involved in mechanisms related to pain and inflammation. However, unknown is whether polymorphisms of the P2RX7 gene that encodes the human P2X7 receptor influence pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of opioids. The P2RX7 gene is known to be highly polymorphic. Thus, the present study examined associations between fentanyl sensitivity and polymorphisms in the P2RX7 gene in 355 Japanese patients who underwent painful orofacial cosmetic surgery. We first conducted linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses for 55 reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region within and around the P2RX7 gene using genomic samples from 100 patients. In our samples, 42 SNPs were polymorphic, and a total of five LD blocks with six Tag SNPs (rs2708092, rs1180012, rs1718125, rs208293, rs1718136, and rs7132846) were observed. Thus, we further analyzed associations between genotypes/haplotypes of these Tag SNPs and clinical data using a total of 355 samples. In the genotype-based association study, only the rs1718125 G > A SNP tended to be associated with higher pain scores on a visual analog scale 24 h after surgery (VAS24). The haplotype-based association study showed that subjects with homozygous haplotype No.3 (GTAAAC; estimated frequency: 15.0%) exhibited significantly higher cold pain sensitivity and lower analgesic effects of fentanyl for acute cold pain in the cold pressor test. Conversely, subjects who carried haplotype No.1 (ACGGAC; estimated frequency: 24.5%) tended to exhibit lower cold pain sensitivity and higher analgesic effects of fentanyl. Furthermore, subjects with homozygous haplotype No.2 (GCGGAC; estimated frequency: 22.9%) exhibited significantly lower VAS24 scores. Cold pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of fentanyl were related to the SNP and haplotypes of the P2RX7 gene. The patients with the rs1718125 G>A SNP tended to show higher VAS24 scores. Moreover, the combination of polymorphisms from the 5[prime]-flanking region to exon 5 recessively affected cold pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of opioids for acute cold pain. The present findings shed light on the involvement of P2RX7 gene polymorphisms in naive cold pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of fentanyl.Molecular Pain 12/2014; 10(1):75. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters act as translocators of numerous substrates across extracellular and intracellular membranes, thereby contributing to bioavailability and consequently therapy response. Genetic polymorphisms are considered as critical determinants of expression level or activity and subsequently response to selected drugs.Areas covered: Here the influence of polymorphisms of the prominent ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 (ABCC2) as well as MRP3 (ABCC3) on the pharmacokinetic of drugs and associated consequences on therapy response and clinical outcome is discussed.Expert opinion: ABC transporter genetic variants were assumed to affect interindividual differences in pharmacokinetics and subsequently clinical response. However, decades of medical research have not yielded in distinct and unconfined reproducible outcomes. Despite some unique results, the majority were inconsistent and dependent on the analyzed cohort or study design. Therefore, variability of bioavailability and drug response may be attributed only by a small amount to polymorphisms in transporter genes, whereas transcriptional regulation or post-transcriptional modification seems to be more critical. In our opinion, currently identified genetic variants of ABC efflux transporters can give some hints on the role of transporters at interfaces but are less suitable as biomarkers to predict therapeutic outcome.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 08/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evaluation of a potential risk of metabolic drug-drug interactions (DDI) is of high importance in the clinical setting. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for oxycodone and its two primary metabolites, oxymorphone and noroxycodone, in order to assess different DDI scenarios using published in vitro and in vivo data. Once developed and refined, the model was able to simulate pharmacokinetics of the three compounds and the DDI extent in case of coadministration with an inhibitor, as well as the oxymorphone concentration variation between CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM). The reliability of the model was tested against published clinical studies monitoring different inhibitors and dose regimens, and all predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios were within the twofold acceptance range. This approach represents a strategy to evaluate the impact of coadministration of different CYP inhibitors using mechanistic incorporation of drug-dependent and system-dependent available in vitro and in vivo data.CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 12/2014; 3:e152.