The antinociceptive effect and adverse drug reactions of oxycodone in human experimental pain in relation to genetic variations in the OPRM1 and ABCB1 genes
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to search for a possible association between the variant allele of the single nucleotide polymorphisms A118G in the OPRM1 gene and C3435T and G2677T/A in the ABCB1 gene and altered antinociceptive effect and adverse drug reactions of oxycodone. Thirty-three healthy subjects exposed to experimental pain including electrical stimulation and the cold pressor test were included. A118G: We found that the variant G allele was associated with reduced antinociceptive effect as measured by pain tolerance thresholds to single electrical nerve stimulation (8% increase vs. 25% for the wild-type carriers, P = 0.007). C3435T: The carriers of the variant T allele generally had less adverse drug reactions on oxycodone than the carriers of the wild-type genotype. G2677T/A: The carriers of the variant T allele had a better antinociceptive effect of oxycodone than the carriers of the wild-type genotype in the cold pressor test (25% reduction vs. 15%, P = 0.015 in the discomfort rating and 25% reduction vs. 12%, P = 0.007 in the pain time AUC) and less adverse drug reactions. The combined wild-type genotype 3435CC-2677GG was associated with less antinociceptive effect of oxycodone in the discomfort rating of the cold pressor test (13% reduction vs. 23%, P = 0.019) and more severe adverse drug reactions than the carriers of the variant alleles. We found a moderate association between less antinociceptive effect of oxycodone and the variant allele of A118G. There was strong association between less adverse drug reactions of oxycodone and the variant alleles of C3435T and G2677T/A.
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- "The A118G genotype also has been associated with postoperative pain intensity, increased opioid demands, and acute pain severity in various postoperative populations      , and in experimental pain  , although the direction and magnitude of these effects varies . We previously demonstrated a significant association of A118G with pressure pain thresholds (PPTh) in a sex-dependent fashion whereby males, but not females, with AG or GG genotype had increased PPTh. "
ABSTRACT: Robust interindividual variation in pain sensitivity has been observed, and recent evidence suggests that some of the variability may be genetically mediated. Our previous data revealed significantly higher pressure pain thresholds among individuals possessing the minor G allele of the A118G SNP of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) compared with those with 2 consensus alleles. Moreover, ethnic differences in pain sensitivity have been widely reported. Yet, little is known about the potential interactive associations of ethnicity and genotype with pain perception. This study aimed to identify ethnic differences in OPRM1 allelic associations with experimental pain responses. A total of 247 healthy young adults from three ethnic groups (81 African Americans; 79 non-white Hispanics; and 87 non-Hispanic whites) underwent multiple experimental pain modalities (thermal, pressure, ischemic, cold pressor). Few African Americans (7.4%) expressed the rare allele of OPRM1 compared to non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (28.7% vs. 27.8%, respectively). Across the entire sample, OPRM1 genotype did not significantly affect pain sensitivity. However, analysis in each ethnic group separately revealed significant genotype effects for most pain modalities among non-Hispanic-whites (P<.05) but not Hispanics or African Americans. The G allele was associated with decreased pain sensitivity among whites only; a trend in the opposite direction emerged in Hispanics. The reasons for this dichotomy are unclear; they may involve ethnic differences in haplotypic structure, or A118G may be a tag-SNP linked to other functional polymorphisms. These findings demonstrate an ethnicity-dependent association of OPRM1 genotype with pain sensitivity. Additional research is warranted to uncover the mechanisms influencing these relationships.Pain 06/2012; 153(8):1610-9. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2012.03.022 · 5.84 Impact Factor
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- "Few studies have examined the genetics of opioid analgesic response profiles in experimental paradigms. One study examined whether variants of ABCB1 encoding for drug transporter p-glycoprotein could alter cold pressor pain responses, supposedly by changing drug distribution in the central nervous system, and reported more pronounced analgesic effects of oxycodone in carriers of the G2677T variant  "
ABSTRACT: Opioids are the cornerstone medication for the management of moderate to severe pain. Unfortunately, vast inter-individual differences in dose requirements complicate their effective and safe clinical use. Mechanisms underlying such differences are incompletely understood, are likely multifactorial, and include genetic and environmental contributions. While accumulating evidence suggests that variants of several genes account for some of the observed response variance, the relative contribution of these factors remains unknown. This study used a twin paradigm to provide a global estimate of the genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity and analgesic opioid effects. Eighty one monozygotic and 31 dizygotic twin pairs successfully underwent a computer-controlled infusion with the μ-opioid agonist alfentanil in a single occasion, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study design. Pain sensitivity and analgesic effects were assessed with experimental heat and cold pressor pain models along with important covariates including demographic factors, depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Significant heritability was detected for cold pressor pain tolerance and opioid-mediated elevations in heat and cold pressor pain thresholds. Genetic effects accounted for 12-60% of the observed response variance. Significant familial effects accounting for 24-32% of observed variance were detected for heat and cold pressor pain thresholds and opioid-mediated elevation in cold pressor pain tolerance. Significant covariates included age, gender, race, education, and anxiety. Results provide a strong rationale for more detailed molecular genetic studies to elucidate mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity and analgesic opioid responses. Such studies will require careful consideration of the studied pain phenotype.Pain 03/2012; 153(7):1397-409. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2012.02.022 · 5.84 Impact Factor
Article: Pharmacogenetics in palliative care.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Response to analgesics, anticancer pharmacotherapy and pharmacotherapy of other cancer related symptoms vary broadly between individuals. Age, disease, comorbidities, concomitant medication, organ function and patients' compliance may partly explain the differences. However, the focus of ongoing research has shifted towards genomic variants of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes with one important goal being an individual dose adjustment according to a patient's genotype. Polymorphisms of the cytochrome P 450 2D6 influence the metabolism of many drugs including the analgesics codeine, tramadol, hydrocodone and oxycodone, as well as the metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants and the anticancer drug tamoxifen. Other candidate genes such as (opioid)-receptors, transporters and other molecules important for pharmacotherapy in pain management are discussed. Although pharmacogenetics as a diagnostic tool has the potential to improve patient therapy, study results are often equivocal and limited by small sample sizes and often by their retrospective design. Well designed studies are needed to demonstrate superiority of pharmoacogenetics to conventional dosing regimes.Forensic science international 12/2010; 203(1-3):63-70. DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.07.003 · 2.12 Impact Factor