Article

Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery: current status.

Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Advances in Surgery 09/2009; 43:1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.yasu.2009.02.001
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of minimally invasive surgery and the advances in endoluminal flexible endoscopy have converged to generate a new concept in digestive surgery, whose acronym natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), has become a familiar term in the surgical community. NOTES has been performed through the mouth, the bladder, the rectum and the vagina. Of these four approaches, the vagina has gained most popularity for several reasons. It is not only readily accessible and easy to decontaminate but it also provides safe entry and simple closure. The transvaginal approach has been described in the experimental and the clinical setting as an option for cholecystectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, segmental gastrectomy, retroperitoneal exploration and bariatric surgery. However, larger series are needed to delineate the exact risks of this approach, and to transcend cultural barriers that impede its wider introduction. Prospective randomized trials will shed light on the definitive role of the vaginal approach in minimal invasive surgery of the future.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of transgastric peritoneal access on plasma biomarkers of acute inflammatory response in comparison to laparoscopy. This was a prospective and comparative study in a porcine model. Transgastric peritoneal access performed by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery was compared with laparoscopy. Laparotomy and sham groups were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Thirty-four pigs were assigned to receive transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (n = 12), laparoscopy (n = 8), laparotomy (n = 8) or a sham procedure involving only anesthesia (n = 6). In the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery group, peritoneoscopy was performed with a gastroscope via transgastric access. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after the surgical procedure for measurement of interleukins 1β, 6 and 10 and tumor necrosis factor-α. A complete blood count was performed, and C-reactive protein levels were measured at baseline and at 24 h. All surgical and endoscopic procedures were performed without major complications. Peritoneal cavity inventory showed no signs of peritonitis in any animal. Interleukin 1β, interleukin 10 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were below the threshold of detection. The mean level of interleukin 6 was statistically significantly higher in the laparotomy group than in the other groups (p<0.05), with no significant differences among the sham, laparoscopy and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery groups (p>0.05). C-reactive protein analysis indicated significant increases in all groups, with no differences among the groups. Complete blood count analysis showed no differences among the groups. Based on the observed interleukin 6 patterns, the systemic inflammatory response resulting from transgastric peritoneal access by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is similar in intensity to the response that occurs after laparoscopy.
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