Antiretroviral Therapy in Macrophages: Implication for HIV Eradication

Center for AIDS Research, Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Antiviral chemistry & chemotherapy 10/2009; 20(2):63-78. DOI: 10.3851/IMP1374
Source: PubMed


HIV type-1 (HIV-1) accounts for more than 25 million deaths and nearly 40 million people are infected worldwide. A significant obstacle in clearing virus from infected individuals is latently infected viral reservoirs. Latent HIV-1 can emerge with recrudescence as a productive infection later in disease progression and could provide a source for the emergence of resistant HIV-1. It is widely recognized that macrophages represent a latently infected viral reservoir and are a significant and critical HIV-1 target cell in vivo. Macrophages can be divided into multiple subsets of macrophage-like cells, all of which are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, including dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, alveolar macrophages, mucosal macrophages and microglial cells. Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) often displays differential antiviral activity in macrophages relative to CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. Significant work has been performed to establish antiviral activity of many clinically approved ART in macrophages; however, a direct link between antiviral activity and specific mechanisms responsible for these antiviral effects are incompletely understood. This review identifies many understudied areas of research, along with topics for further research in the field of HIV therapy and eradication. Discussion focuses upon the known cellular pharmacology and antiviral activity of antiretroviral agents in macrophages and its relationship to latency, chronic HIV-1 infection and therapeutic strategies to eradicate systemic HIV-1 infection.

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Available from: Raymond F Schinazi, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "In lymphocytes but not monocytes, the negative side-effects of ART (mitotoxicity) on mitochondria could be balanced by the positive effects of ART, i.e. decreased viral load and replication [94]. ART antiviral activity is less effective towards chronically infected monocytes than lymphocytes for several reasons, one of them being that HIV-related ART targets are present in lower amounts in refractory monocytes [95]. Moreover, the different mitochondrial sensitivities to ART could also be the result of distinct pathways involved in ART intracellular metabolism (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ANRS EP45 "Aging" study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The data reported focus on mitochondria, organelles known to be involved in cell senescence. 49 HIV-1 infected patients untreated with antiretroviral therapy, together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects and 81 HIV-1 infected and treated patients, were recruited by 3 AIDS centres (Marseille, Montpellier, Nice; France;, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of treated patients, the viral load was <40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was >500/mm(3). ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and ΔΨm (inner membrane potential) were measured by flow cytometry in blood lymphocytes and monocytes (functional parameters). Three mitochondrial network quantitative morphological parameters were computed using confocal microscopy and image analysis. Three PBMC mitochondrial proteins (porin and subunits 2 and 4 of cytochrome C oxidase encoded by mtDNA or nuclear DNA, respectively) were analysed by western blotting. Quantitative changes in PBMC mitochondrial proteins were not induced by either HIV-1 infection or ART. Discriminant analysis integrating functional (ROS production and ΔΨm) or morphological (network volume density, fragmentation and branching) parameters revealed HIV-1 infection and ART differential effects according to cell type. First line ART tended to rescue lymphocyte mitochondrial parameters altered by viral infection, but induced slight changes in monocytes. No statistical difference was found between the effects of three ART regimens on mitochondrial parameters. Correlations between functional parameters and viral load confirmed the damaging effects of HIV-1 in lymphocyte mitochondria. In patients considered to be clinically stable, mitochondria exhibited functional and morphological modifications in PBMCs resulting from either direct or indirect effects of HIV-1 infection (lymphocytes), or from first line ART (monocytes). Together with other tissue impairments, these changes may contribute to global aging.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41129. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041129 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Macrophages are a key reservoir for HIV-1, and their ubiquitous nature, multiple, and often independent microenvironments in which they are contained, coupled with their susceptibility to HIV-1 infection [1] [2] [3], dictate that further understanding must be garnered about the distinctive characteristics of macrophages and the subsequent impact on the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in these cells. Despite these factors, most of the attention on reservoirs for latent HIV- 1 has focused on cells of lymphoid origin, most notably CD4 + /CD45RO + memory lymphocytes [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are ubiquitous and represent a significant viral reservoir for HIV-1. Macrophages are nondividing, terminally differentiated cells, which have a unique cellular microenvironment relative to actively dividing T lymphocytes, all of which can impact HIV-1 infection/replication, design of inhibitors targeting viral replication in these cells, emergence of mutations within the HIV-1 genome, and disease progression. Scarce dNTPs drive rNTP incorporation into the proviral DNA in macrophages but not lymphocytes. Furthermore, the efficacy of a ribose-based inhibitor that potently inhibits HIV-1 replication in macrophages, has prompted a reconsideration of the previously accepted dogma that 2'-deoxy-based inhibitors demonstrate effective inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Additionally, higher levels of dUTP and rNTP incorporation in macrophages, and lack of repair mechanisms relative to lymphocytes, provide a further mechanistic understanding required to develop targeted inhibition of viral replication in macrophages. Together, the concentrations of dNTPs and rNTPs within macrophages comprise a distinctive cellular environment that directly impacts HIV-1 replication in macrophages and provides unique insight into novel therapeutic mechanisms that could be exploited to eliminate virus from these cells.
    07/2012; 2012(5270):625983. DOI:10.1155/2012/625983
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages serve as a depot for HIV type-1 (HIV-1) in the central nervous system. To efficiently target macrophages, we developed nanocarriers for potential brain delivery of activated nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) called nano-NRTIs. Nanogel carriers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- or Pluronic-polyethylenimine (PEI) biodegradable networks, star PEG-PEI or poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-PEI-PEG dendritic networks, as well as nanogels decorated with brain-targeting peptide molecules, specifically binding to the apolipoprotein E receptor, were synthesized and evaluated. Nano-NRTIs were obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of zidovudine 5'-triphosphate or didanosine 5'-triphosphate and nanocarriers, followed by freeze-drying. Intracellular accumulation, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of nano-NRTIs were monitored in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). HIV-1 viral activity in infected MDMs was measured by a reverse transcriptase activity assay following treatment with nano-NRTIs. Mitochondrial DNA depletion in MDMs and human HepG2 cells was assessed by quantitative PCR. Nanogels were efficiently captured by MDMs and demonstrated low cytotoxicity, and no antiviral activity without drugs. All nano-NRTIs demonstrated high efficacy of HIV-1 inhibition at drug levels as low as 1 μmol/l, representing a 4.9- to 14-fold decrease in 90% effective drug concentrations as compared with NRTIs, whereas 50% cytotoxicity effects started at 200× higher concentrations. Nano-NRTIs with a core-shell structure and decorated with brain-targeting peptides displayed the highest antiviral efficacy. Mitochondrial DNA depletion, a major cause of NRTI neurotoxicity, was reduced threefold compared with NRTIs at application of selected nano-NRTIs. Nano-NRTIs demonstrated a promising antiviral efficacy against HIV-1 in MDMs and showed strong potential as nanocarriers for delivery of antiviral drugs to macrophages harbouring in the brain.
    Antiviral chemistry & chemotherapy 10/2010; 21(1):1-14. DOI:10.3851/IMP1680
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