Monocyte heterogeneity underlying phenotypic changes in monocytes according to SIV disease stage.

Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Journal of leukocyte biology (Impact Factor: 4.99). 10/2009; 87(4):557-67. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0209082
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Infection by HIV is associated with the expansion of monocytes expressing CD16 antigens, but the significance of this in HIV pathogenesis is largely unknown. In rhesus macaques, at least three subpopulations of blood monocytes were identified based on their expression of CD14 and CD16: CD14(high)CD16(-), CD14(high)CD16(low), and CD14(low)CD16(high). The phenotypes and functions of these subpopulations, including CD16(+) monocytes, were investigated in normal, uninfected rhesus macaques and macaques that were infected with SIV or chimeric SHIV. To assess whether these different monocyte subpopulations expand or contract in AIDS pathogenesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 54 SIV- or SHIV-infected macaques and 48 uninfected controls. The absolute numbers of monocyte populations were examined in acutely infected animals, chronically infected animals with no detectable plasma virus RNA, chronically infected animals with detectable plasma virus RNA, and animals that died with AIDS. The absolute numbers of CD14(high)CD16(low) and CD14(low)CD16(high) monocytes were elevated significantly in acutely infected animals and chronically infected animals with detectable plasma virus RNA compared with uninfected controls. Moreover, a significant, positive correlation was evident between the number of CD14(high)CD16(low) or CD14(low)CD16(high) monocytes and plasma viral load in the infected cohort. These data show the dynamic changes of blood monocytes, most notably, CD14(high)CD16(low) monocytes during lentiviral infection, which are specific to disease stage.

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Available from: Kenneth C Williams, Jul 10, 2015
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    • "Flow cytometry was performed using the antibodies listed in Table 1, as previously described (Kim et al. 2010). Whole blood and single-cell suspensions from spleens of infected a n i m a l s w e r e s t a i n e d , a n d a n a l y z e d f o r H L A - DR + CD11b + CD14 + CD163 + monocytes/macrophages coexpressing CD206 using FlowJo software (Tree Star, Ashland, OR). "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the expression of the mannose receptor CD206 by perivascular macrophages (PVM) in normal human and monkey brains and in brains of HIV-infected humans and of monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Depletion of brain PVM in SIV-infected monkeys by intrathecal injection of liposome-encapsulated bisphosphonates eliminated CD206-expressing cells in the brain, confirming their perivascular location and phagocytic capacity. In vivo labeling with bromodeoxyuridine in normal uninfected and SIV-infected macaques in combination with CD206 immunostaining revealed a CD206+-to-CD206- shift within pre-existing PVM during SIV brain infection and neuroinflammation. These findings identify CD206 as a unique marker of human and macaque PVM, and underscore the utility of this marker in studying the origin, turnover and functions of these cells in AIDS.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 08/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1007/s11481-014-9564-y
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    • "In healthy individuals, 90–95 % of circulating monocytes are only CD14+, while 5–10 % are CD14+ and CD16+ (Ziegler- Heitbrock et al. 1993), which are considered to be more mature. In HIV infected individuals (Nockher et al. 1994; Thieblemont et al. 1995) and SIV infected monkeys (Kim et al. 2010), CD14+CD16+ monocytes were increased in the circulation. Studies showed that these cells were preferentially infected with HIV or SIV when compared to CD14+ CD16-cells (Ancuta et al. 2006; Ellery et al. 2007; Williams et al. 2005; Pulliam et al. 1997). "
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    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11481-013-9443-y
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    • "There have been transcriptome studies into intermediate monocytes in non-human primates by Kim et al. (2010) and they reported that among the 18 genes specifically up-regulated, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA was found >50-fold higher in the intermediates versus both the classical and the non-classical monocytes. The three studies looking at the transcriptome of intermediate monocytes in man and in non-human primates found different genes to be selectively expressed in these cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a nomenclature proposal published in 2010 monocytes were subdivided into classical and non-classical cells and in addition an intermediate monocyte subset was proposed. Over the last couple of years many studies have analyzed these intermediate cells, their characteristics have been described, and their expansion has been documented in many clinical settings. While these cells appear to be in transition from classical to non-classical monocytes and hence may not form a distinct cell population in a strict sense, their separate analysis and enumeration is warranted in health and disease.
    Frontiers in Immunology 02/2013; 4:23. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00023
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