IRS1 regulation by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and varied contribution of IRS1 to the neoplastic phenotype.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 10/2009; 285(3):1928-38. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.060319
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dysregulation of beta-catenin levels and localization and constitutive activation of beta-catenin/TCF (T cell factor)-regulated gene expression occur in many cancers, including the majority of colorectal carcinomas and a subset of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Based on the results of microarray-based gene expression profiling we found the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene as one of the most highly up-regulated genes upon ectopic expression of a mutant, constitutively active form of beta-catenin in the rat kidney epithelial cell line RK3E. We demonstrate expression of IRS1 can be directly activated by beta-catenin, likely in part via beta-catenin/TCF binding to TCF consensus binding elements located in the first intron and downstream of the IRS1 transcriptional start site. Consistent with the proposal that beta-catenin is an important regulator of IRS1 expression in vivo, we observed that IRS1 is highly expressed in many cancers with constitutive stabilization of beta-catenin, such as colorectal carcinomas and ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Using a short hairpin RNA approach to abrogate IRS1 expression and function, we found that IRS1 function is required for efficient de novo neoplastic transformation by beta-catenin in RK3E cells. Our findings add to the growing body of data implicating IRS1 as a critical signaling component in cancer development and progression.

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    ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a central node of Wnt signaling. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), as critical component of insulin signaling, are involved in cell proliferation, metabolism and cancer development. In this study, we report that IRS1/2 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling by stabilizing Dvl2. We found that IRS1/2 interacts with Dvl2. Over-expression of IRS1/2 increased the protein level of Dvl2 and promoted canonical Wnt signaling, as evidenced by the increased TCF4 transcriptional activity and the up-regulation of expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt target genes critical for cell growth, whereas depletion of IRS1/2 reduced the level of Dvl2 and attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Biochemical analyses revealed that IRS1/2 decreased K63-linked ubiquitination of Dvl2 and stabilized Dvl2 protein via suppressing its autophagy-mediated degradation. We further revealed that IRS1/2 blocks autophagy-induced formation of the Dvl2-p62/SQSTM1 complex, resulting in disabled association of Dvl2 to autophagosomes. We demonstrated that IRS1/2 promoted the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferation in response to Wnt stimulation, whereas depletion of Dvl2 impaired the IRS1/2-mediated EMT and cell growth. Our findings revealed that IRS1/2 promotes EMT and cell proliferation through stabilizing Dvl2.
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May 21, 2014