Intrarenal artery superoxide is mainly NADPH oxidase-derived and modulates endothelium-dependent dilation in elderly patients.
ABSTRACT The present study was performed to investigate the contribution of NADPH oxidases (Nox) to superoxide formation in human renal proximal resistance arteries and to test whether superoxide formation contributes to acute vasoconstrictor responses and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in these vessels.
Arcuate and proximal interlobular artery segments were from patients who underwent nephrectomy because of a renal tumour. Vessels were dissected from tumour-free parts of the kidneys. Additional intrarenal arteries were obtained from rats. Superoxide formation was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, expression of Nox isoforms was analysed by RT-PCR, and functional studies were performed by small vessel wire myography. Sixty per cent of superoxide formation in human arcuate and proximal interlobular arteries was due to Nox activity. mRNA expression analyses revealed the presence of Nox2 and Nox4 but not Nox1. Phenylephrine and endothelin-1 induced powerful concentration-dependent vasoconstrictions that were unaffected by superoxide scavengers. Vasopressin elicited small and variable vasoconstrictions with signs of tachyphylaxis. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was blunted by tiron and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester but not by superoxide dismutase or catalase. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide elicited vasoconstriction.
Nox activity is the major source of superoxide formation in renal proximal resistance arteries from elderly patients. Acute vasoconstrictor responses to alpha1-adrenoreceptor activation and to endothelin-1 do not depend on superoxide formation, while endothelium-dependent vasodilation in intrarenal arteries is reactive oxygen species-dependent.
- SourceAvailable from: Hiroaki Nishimatsu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was intended to quantify the amounts of the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype mRNAs in human renal artery and to demonstrate the distribution of receptor subtypes responsible for the contraction of the renal artery. RNase protection assay showed that the mean amount of alpha1a mRNA was much greater than that of alpha1b or alpha1d mRNAs in both the main and branch renal arteries. However, the abundance of alpha1a mRNA in human renal artery was much less than in our previous data in the prostate. In situ hybridization showed that all alpha1 subtype mRNAs were localized in the smooth muscle cells of the tunica media of the artery, and the distribution pattern of these three mRNAs in the main artery was the same as in the branch artery. However, the intensity of signals for alpha1d and alpha1b antisense RNAs probes was lower than that for the alpha1a antisense RNA probe. In the functional study, concentration-response curves to noradrenaline pretreated with KMD-3213, an alpha1A/L-adrenoceptor selective antagonist, seemed to be biphasic in nature. Chloroethyclonidine (CEC) failed to inactivate the noradrenaline-induced contraction, and prazosin showed relatively low affinity with a pA2 value of 8.8. These data suggest that the alpha1A/L-adrenoceptor mediates primarily those responses to noradrenaline in this artery. The other alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes could also mediate the secondary contractile response to noradrenaline in this artery.Life Sciences 02/2000; 66(10):915-26. · 2.56 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide causes vascular contraction and relaxation and contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that the contractile state of blood vessels governs whether H2O2 causes contraction or relaxation. Hydrogen peroxide (1 micromol/L to 1 mmol/L) concentration-dependently contracted thoracic aorta and vena cava from sham normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. The maximal contraction to H2O2 was 3 times greater in DOCA aorta compared with sham aorta but unchanged in DOCA vena cava compared with sham vena cava. In prostaglandin F2alpha (20 micromol/L)-contracted aorta and vena cava from sham and DOCA rats, H2O2 (1 micromol/L to 1 mmol/L) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation that was impaired in DOCA aorta but not DOCA vena cava. In contrast, in KCl (30 mmol/L)-contracted vessels, maximal H2O2-induced contraction was enhanced 15-fold in sham aorta and 5-fold in DOCA aorta but only 2-fold in sham vena cava. Tetraethylammonium (10 mmol/L), BAY K 8644 (100 nmol/L), and ouabain (1 mmol/L) all enhanced maximal aortic H2O2-induced contraction, whereas only ouabain enhanced venous H2O2-induced contraction. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ reduced H2O2-induced contraction in KCl-contracted aorta, whereas maximal venous H2O2-induced contraction (under basal conditions) was unchanged. Our data suggest that differences in arterial and venous K+ channel activity and extracellular Ca2+ influx are responsible for differences in arterial and venous contraction to H2O2. In DOCA-salt hypertension, arterial but not venous contraction to H2O2 is enhanced, and relaxation to H2O2 is reduced.Hypertension 04/2006; 47(3):482-7. · 6.87 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells vasopressin, via arachidonic acid, regulates two Ca(2+)-entry pathways. Capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE), activated by empty Ca(2+) stores, is inhibited by arachidonic acid, and non-capacitative Ca(2+) entry (NCCE) is stimulated by it. This reciprocal regulation ensures that all Ca(2+) entry is via NCCE in the presence of vasopressin, while CCE mediates a transient Ca(2+) entry only after removal of vasopressin. We demonstrate that type III NO synthase (NOS III) is expressed in A7r5 cells and that NO inhibits CCE. Inhibition of CCE by vasopressin requires NOS III and the requirement lies downstream of arachidonic acid. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by NO and subsequent activation of protein kinase G are required for inhibition of CCE. Stimulation of NCCE by vasopressin also requires NOS III, but the stimulation is neither mimicked by cGMP nor blocked by inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase or protein kinase G. We conclude that arachidonic acid formed in response to vasopressin stimulates NOS III. NO then directly stimulates Ca(2+) entry through NCCE and, via protein kinase G, it inhibits CCE. The additional amplification provided by the involvement of guanylate cyclase and protein kinase G ensures that CCE will always be inhibited when vasopressin activates NCCE.Biochemical Journal 04/2003; 370(Pt 2):439-48. · 4.65 Impact Factor