Modified Papanicolaou staining protocol with minimum alcohol use: a cost-cutting measure for resource-limited settings.
ABSTRACT To devise a simple, cost-effective protocol for Papanicolaou (Pap) staining of cervicovaginal smears.
Five hundred coded paired cervical smears were collected from women as part of routine cervical cancer screening. One set of smears was stained by conventional Pap staining protocol (CP) and the other by a modified protocol (MP) in which alcohol was replaced by 1% acetic acid in all the steps except during fixation and prior to mounting; in addition, one alcohol-based counterstain, OG, was omitted. The smears were examined blindly by the pathologists and then decoded. Each pair of smears was compared and the two protocols were analysed for staining quality and diagnoses by McNemar and chi-square tests.
The staining quality in the MP was satisfactory. The nuclear and cytoplasmic features were comparable to the CP. Cytoplasmic transparency was maintained in the MP and the differential staining of blue/green and pink was acceptable to the pathologists and technicians. The diagnoses agreed in all cases and there was no compromise in interpreting the smears. With MP it took only 3-4 minutes to stain a batch of 50 slides. in contrast to the 20 minutes taken by CP. The MP used almost one-seventh of the amount of alcohol compared with CP, which translated into a significant cost reduction per smear.
The improvised Pap staining protocol with minimum alcohol use is a simple, cost-effective and technician-friendly procedure that can be easily adopted in high-volume, resource-limited laboratories for mass cervical cancer screening.
- SourceAvailable from: Diane Davis Davey[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Bethesda 2001 Workshop was convened to evaluate and update the 1991 Bethesda System terminology for reporting the results of cervical cytology. A primary objective was to develop a new approach to broaden participation in the consensus process. Forum groups composed of 6 to 10 individuals were responsible for developing recommendations for discussion at the workshop. Each forum group included at least 1 cytopathologist, cytotechnologist, clinician, and international representative to ensure a broad range of views and interests. More than 400 cytopathologists, cytotechnologists, histopathologists, family practitioners, gynecologists, public health physicians, epidemiologists, patient advocates, and attorneys participated in the workshop, which was convened by the National Cancer Institute and cosponsored by 44 professional societies. More than 20 countries were represented. Literature review, expert opinion, and input from an Internet bulletin board were all considered in developing recommendations. The strength of evidence of the scientific data was considered of paramount importance. Bethesda 2001 was a year-long iterative review process. An Internet bulletin board was used for discussion of issues and drafts of recommendations. More than 1000 comments were posted to the bulletin board over the course of 6 months. The Bethesda Workshop, held April 30-May 2, 2001, was open to the public. Postworkshop recommendations were posted on the bulletin board for a last round of critical review prior to finalizing the terminology. Bethesda 2001 was developed with broad participation in the consensus process. The 2001 Bethesda System terminology reflects important advances in biological understanding of cervical neoplasia and cervical screening technology.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2002; 287(16):2114-9. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The universal stain for cervical cytological screening is Papanicolaou stain which has been used in different laboratories with many modifications. Aims: The study is designed to search for a superior and improved qualitative staining technique which is cheaper but rapid in cancer screening by cytology. The modified technique is referred as Rapid, economic, acetic acid Papanicolaou stain (REAP). Material & methods: 220 PAP smears from 110 patients ( 2 per subject) were collected . One set of smears was stained by conventional Papanicolaou stain & the other set by REAP stain. Pre- Orange G 6 & post- Orange G 6 and post- EA50 ethanol baths in REAP stain were replaced by 1% acetic acid. Tap water was used instead of Scott's tap water to reduce cost. Hematoxylin was preheated in waterbath to 60û C before staining for rapid penetration. Methanol was used for final dehydration. Results: The two methods were compared in respect of optimal cytoplasmic & nuclear staining, stain preservation, cost & total time for the procedure. In REAP technique, cytoplasmic & nuclear staining was optimal in 100 & 105 cases respectively. The cost was reduced to 25% due to limited alcohol use. The staining-time was minimised to 3 minutes. Conclusion: REAP stain, in comparison to conventional Papanicolaou, provides a suitable, excellent & rapid alternative for cytological screening with minimum cost. The stain preservation is also good in REAP method.
- International Journal of Cancer 12/1990; 46(5):761-9. · 6.20 Impact Factor